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North and South

People and Terms

TermDefinition
Harriet Tubman most famous as an underground rail raod conductor
Nat Turner led a violent slave rebellion that resulted in 60 white deaths, mainly unsuccessful
Frederick Douglass was an escapee of slavery and later became the leader of an abolitionist movement, does this through writing, aimed for the whites, non-violent
Eli Whitney the inventor of the cotton gin and interchangeable parts, hoping to decrease the number of slaves but ended up increasing the number of slaves
William Gregg factory owner in the South
John Brown northerner that believed violence was the only way to abolish slavery, tried to start an uprising with the slaves but there was lack of communication, can be seen as a martyr or as a traitor
Dred Scott The supreme court ruled that as a slave, he could not sue for his freedom because he was not a citizen
Abraham Lincoln a president in the early 1800s that was in support of slavery, debated slavery with Douglas. he didn't want the nation to be divided and didn't want slavery to be spread to the new states/ territory. His names wasn’t on any southern ballot
Jefferson Davis American soldier and politician who was president of the Confederate States of America during the civil war
Stephen A. Douglas politician who lost against Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 election for president, debated slavery with Lincoln
Samuel Morse painter and inventor, that helped invent a single-wire telegraph and co-developed the morse code. The south used telegraph lines to communicate much faster.
John Deere fashioned/invented a lightweight plow from polished steel to replace the formerly used iron plows
Elias Howe invented the first American sewing machine
Cyrus McCormick inventor of the mechanic reaper, and founder of McCormick Harvesing Machine Company
Harriet Beecher Stowe abolitionist and author who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin.Wrote about what it was like to be on a plantation. helps fuel the fire of abolitionists
Robert Fulton Engineer and inventor credited with developing the steamboat Clermont
Roger Taney Fifth chief justice of the supreme court, thought African-Americans and slaves were not U.S. citizens and slaves were a piece of property and the constitution says the government cannot take away property(part of the Dred Scott case).
Solomon Northup American abolitionist and primary author of the memoir Twelve Years a Slave.
Preston Brooks a Democratic Representative from South Carolina, serving from 1853 until his resignation in July, 1856, and again from August, 1856 until his death. Brooks was a fervent advocate of slavery and states' rights. Beat a guy with a cane.
Peter Cooper American industrialist, inventor, philanthropist, and candidate for President of the United States, invented the steam locomotive
William Lloyd Garrison A prominent American abolitionist, journalist, suffragist, and social reformer. Spoke with Frederick Douglass, and compared them said what makes Frederick Douglass property and me free? Was one of the first whites that wanted to free the slaves.
yeomen a farmer who cultivates his own land, does not own slaves and is the most popular for white males in the South
tenant farmers people who farm on rented land
plantation/owners/wives the owner or manager of a plantation/ the woman of the house on a plantation
rural poor lowest class system for whites in the south
overseersd a person who supervises others, especially workers
slave codes laws in each state that defined the slaves' standings and masters' rights
spirituals laws in each state that defined the slaves' standings and masters' rights
underground railroad a network of secret routes and safe houses used by the slaves in the South to escape to the North where they could be free
sectionalism an exaggerated devotion to the interests of a region; loyalty to a certain area and not to the entire country
Missouri Compromise an effort by Congress to defuse the sectional and political rivalries triggered by the request of Missouri Late in 1819 for admission as a state in which slavery would be permitted
Fugitive Slave Act A law passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, provided southern slaveholders with legal weapons to capture slaves who had escaped to the free state; highly unpopular in the North and convert many previously indifferent northerners to antislavery
border ruffians pro-slavery activists from the slave state of Missouri, who in 1854 to 1860 crossed the state border into Kansas Territory, to force the acceptance of slavery there
popular sovereignty principle that the authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power
credit publicly acknowledge someone as a participant in the production of (something published or broadcast)
1860 presidential election Lincoln was running for president against Douglas, his name was not on any of the Southern ballots because they didn’t think he was suitable to be president. Lincoln won, and the South seceded, starting with South Carolina
bleeding Kansas series of confrontations involving anti-slavery Free-Staters and pro-slavery Border Ruffian elements; took place in the Kansas and the neighboring Missouri. People in Missouri would try to cross the border to try to force pro-slavery onto people.
compromise 1850 a set of laws that attempted to give something to both sides, created by Henry Clay. amended the slave act, allowed the capture and return of runaway slaves. North wasn’t happy about it because they would have to pay fines if they helped escaped slaves.
cash crops a crop produced for its commercial value rather than for use by the grower
fixed costs business costs, such as rent, that are constant whatever the quantity of goods or services produced, disregarding how well the business is doing
extended families a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, including grandparents, aunts, uncles, and other relatives, who all live nearby or in one household.
abolition the action or an act of abolishing a system, practice, or institution
secede withdraw formally from membership in a federal union, an alliance, or a political or religious organization
discrimination is action that denies social participation or human rights to categories of people based on prejudice
slave trade when slaves are sold to other slave owner as a belonging
trade unions a labor union of craftspeople or workers in related crafts, as distinguished from general workers or a union including all workers in an industry
strikes a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees at work
deforestation the process whereby natural forests are cleared through logging and/or burning, either to use the timber or to replace the area for alternative uses (factories, farm land, etc.)
nativist a person in the political position of demanding a favored status for certain established inhabitants of a nation as compared to claims of newcomers or immigrants. The whites were the natives in this situation and they didn’t like the immigrants
famine extreme scarcity of food.
immigrants a person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country
clipper ship a fast sailing ship, especially one of 19th-century design with concave bows and rake masts. They were used on the seas, and not rivers. These were smaller than other ships but they were also faster
states' rights the rights and powers held by individual US states rather than by the federal government. Argument used by South Carolina when they seceded said it was their right as a state to make the choice if they wanted to stay or leave the union
Created by: tlu