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MCAT Bio. Ch. 7

The Cardiovascular System Consists Of: A muscular four-chambered heart, blood vessels, and blood
The Heart Is Composed Of: Cardiac muscle and supports two different circulations: the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation
Each Side Of The Heart Consists Of: An atrium and a ventricle
The Atria Are Separated From The Ventricles By: The atrioventricular valves (tricuspid on the right, mitral [bicuspid] on the left)
The Ventricles Are Separated From The Vasculature By: The semilunar valves (pulmonary on the right, aortic on the left)
The Pathway Of Blood Is: RA (via tricuspid valve) -> RV (pulmonary valve) -> pulmonary artery -> lungs -> pulmonary veins -> LA (mitral valve) -> LV (aortic valve) -> aorta -> arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries -> venules -> veins -> vena cavae -> RA
The Left Side Of The Heart Contains: More muscle than the right side because the systemic circulation has a much higher resistance and pressure
Electrical Conduction Of The Heart Starts At: Sinoatrial (SA) node and then goes to the atrioventricular (AV) node
From The AV Node, Electrical Conduction Goes To The: Bundle of His before traveling through the Purkinje fibers.
Systole Refers To: The period during ventricular contraction when the AV valves are closed
During Diastole, The Heart Is: Relaxed and the semilunar valves are closed
Cardiac Output Is: The product of heart rate and stroke volume
Sympathetic Nervous Systems Increases: The heart rate and contractility
The Parasympathetic Nervous System Decreases: Heart rate
The Vasculature Consists Of: Arteries, veins, and capillaries
Arteries Are: Thick, highly muscular structures with an elastic quality. This allows for recoil and helps to propel blood forward within the system.
Arterioles Are: Small muscular arteries which control flow into capillary beds
Capillaries Have Walls That Are One Cell Thick, Which Makes Them: So narrow that red blood cells must travel through them in single-file lines. They are the sites of gas and solute exchange.
Veins Are: Inelastic, think-walled structures that transport blood to the heart. They are able to stretch in order to accommodate large volumes of blood but do not have recoil capability.
Veins Are Compressed By: Surrounding skeletal muscles and have valves to maintain one-way flow.
Small Veins Are Called: Venules
A Portal System Is One In Which Blood Passes Through: Two capillary beds in series
In The Hepatic Portal System, Blood Travels: From the capillary beds to the liver capillary bed via the hepatic portal vein
In The Hypophyseal Portal System, Blood Travels: From the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
In The Renal Portal System, Blood Travels From the glomerulus to the vasa recta through an efferent arteriole
Blood Is Composed Of: Cells and plasma, and aqueous mix of nutrients, salts, respiratory gases, hormones, and blood proteins
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells) Lack: Mitochondria, a nucleus, and organelles in order to make room for hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen.
Hematocrit: The percent of blood composed of erythrocytes
Leukocytes (White Blood Cells) Are Formed: In the bone marrow. They are a crucial part of the immune system.
What Type Of White Blood Cells Play A Role In Nonspecific Immunity?: Granular leukocytes such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
What Type Of White Blood Cells Along With Lymphocytes Play A Large Role In Immunity: Agranulocytes, including lymphocytes and monocytes, with lymphocytes playing a large role in specific immunity.
Thrombocytes (Platelets) Are: Cell fragments from megakaryocytes that are required for coagulation
Blood Antigens Include: The surface antigens: A, B, and O, as well as Rh factor (D)
The I^A (A) And I^B (B) Alleles Are: Codominant
The i(O) Allele Is: Recessive.
An Individual Has Antibodies For: Any ABO allele he or she does not have
Positive Rh Factor Is: Dominant.
An Rh-negative Individual Will Only Create Anti-Rh Antibodies After: Exposure to Rh-positive blood
Blood Pressure Refers To: The force per unit area that is exerted on the walls of blood vessels by blood. This is divided into systolic and diastolic components
Blood Pressure Must Be High Enough To Overcome: The resistance created by arterioles and capillaries but low enough to avoid damaging the vasculature and surrounding structures
Blood Pressure Can Be Measured With A: Sphygmomanometer
Blood Pressure Is Maintained By: Baroreceptor and chemoreceptor reflexes
Low Blood Pressure Promotes: Aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) release
High Blood Osmolarity Also Promotes: ADH and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release
Gas And Solute Exchange Occurs At The Levels Of: The capillaries. This relies on the existence of concentration gradients to facilitate diffusion across the capillary walls.
Capillaries Are Also Leaky, Which Aids In: Transport of gases and solutes.
Starling Forces Consist Of: Hydrostatic pressure and osmotic (oncotic) pressure
Hydrostatic Pressure Of Starling Forces: The pressure of the fluid within the blood vessel
Osmotic Pressure Of Starling Forces: The "sucking" pressure drawing water toward solutes
Oncotic Pressure: Osmotic pressure due to proteins
Hydrostatic Pressure Forces Fluid Out At The: Arteriolar end of a capillary bed
Oncotic Pressure Draws Fluid Back In At The: Venule end
Oxygen Is Carried By Hemoglobin, Which: Exhibits cooperative binding.
In The Lungs, There Is A High Partial Pressure Of O2, Which Results In: Loading of oxygen onto hemoglobin
In The Tissues, There Is A Low Partial Pressure Of Oxygen, Which Results: Unloading of oxygen from hemoglobin
Cooperative Binding: Each successive oxygen bound to hemoglobin increases the affinity of the other subunits, while each successive oxygen released decreases the affinity of the other subunits.
Carbon Dioxide Is Largely Carried In The Blood In The Form Of: Carbonic acid, or bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.
Carbon Dioxide Is: Non polar and not particular soluble while bicarbonate, hydrogen ions, and carbonic acid are polar and highly soluble.
HIgh P4CO2, High [H+], Low pH, High Temp., High Conc. Of 2,3-BPG Can Cause A: Right shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, which reflects a decreased affinity for oxygen
A Left Shift In Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve Can Be Seen In: Fetal hemoglobin compared to adult hemoglobin
Nutrients, Wastes, And Hormones Are Carried In The Bloodstream To: Tissues for use or disposal
Coagulation Results From: An activation cascade
When The Endothelial Lining Of A Blood Vessel Is Damaged: The collagen and tissue factor underlying the endothelial cells are exposed. This results in a cascade of events known as the coagulation cascade which results in the formation of a clot over the damaged area.
Platelets Bind To Collagen And Are Stabilized By: Fibrin, which is activated by thrombin
Clots Can be Broken Down By: Plasmin
Created by: SamB91
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