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MCAT Bio. Ch. 6

Anatomy And Mechanism Of Breathing (Part 1) Air is drawn through the nares and through the nasal cavity and pharynx, where it is warmed and humidified. It is filtered by nasal hairs (vibrissae) and mucous membranes.
Anatomy And Mechanism Of Breathing (Part 2) Air then airs the larynx, followed by the trachea. The trachea divides into two mainstream bronchi which divide into bronchioles, which divide into continually smaller passages until reaching the alveoli
Alveoli Are Small Sacs That: Interface with the pulmonary capillaries which allows gases to diffuse across a one-cell-thick membrane
Surfactant In The Alveoli Reduces: Surface tension at the liquid-gas interface, preventing collapse
The Pleurae Cover The: Lungs and line the chest wall
The Visceral Pleura Lies Adjacent To: The lung itself
The Parietal Pleura Lines The: Chest wall
The Intrapleural Space Lies Between: The visceral and parietal pleura. This contains a thin layer of fluid which lubricates the two pleural surfaces
The Diaphragm Is A Thin Skeletal Muscle That: Helps to create the pressure differential required for breathing
The Diaphragm And External Intercostal Muscles Expand The: Thoracic cavity which increases the volume of the intrapleural space. This decreases the intrapleural pressure.
The Pressure Differential Ultimately (PLUS ITS NAME): Expands the lungs, drops their pressure, and draws in air from the environment. The mechanism's name is negative-pressure breathing.
Exhalation May Be Passive Or Active (True Or False?) True
In Passive Exhalation, Relaxation Of The Muscles Of Inspiration And Elastic Recoil Of The Lungs Allow: The chest cavity to decrease in volume, which reverses the pressure differentials seen in inhalation
In Active Exhalation, The Internal Intercostal Muscles And Abdominal Muscles Can Be Used To: Forcibly decrease the volume of the thoracic cavity which pushes out air.
A Spirometer Can Be Used To: Measure lung capacities and volumes
Total Lung Capacity (TLC) Is: The max. volume of air in the lungs when one inhales completely.
Residual Volume (RV) Is: The min volume of air in the lungs when one exhales completely
Vital Capacity (VC) Is: The difference between the min and max volume of air in the lungs
Tidal Volume (TV) Is: The volume of air inhaled or exhaled in a normal breath
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) Is: The volume of additional air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal exhalation
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) Is: The volume of additional air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal inhalation
Ventilation Is Regulated By The Ventilation Center, Which Is: A collection of neurons in the medulla oblongata
Chemoreceptors Respond To Carbon Dioxide Concentrations Which: Increases the respiratory rate when there are high concentrations of carbon dioxide in teh blood (hypercarbia or hypercapnia)
The Ventilation Center Can Also Respond To Low Oxygen Concentrations In The Blood (Hypoxia) By: Increasing the ventilation rate
Ventilation can Also Be Controlled Consciously Through The: Cerebrum. Although the medulla oblongata will override the cerebrum during extended periods of hypo- or hyperventilation.
The Lungs Perform Gas Exchange With The Blood Through: Simple diffusion across conc. gradients
Deoxygenated Blood With A High Carbon Dioxide Conc. Is Brought To: The lungs via the pulmonary arteries
Oxygenated Blood With A Low Carbon Dioxide Conc. Leaves The: Lungs via the pulmonary veins
The Large Surface Area Of Interaction Between The Alveoli And Capillaries Allows: The respiratory system to assist in thermoregulation through vasodilation and vasoconstriction of capillary beds
Multiple Mechanisms Include Vibrissae, Mucous Membranes, And The Mucociliary Escalator: Help filter the incoming air and trap particulate matter
Lysozyme In The Nasal Cavity And Saliva: Attacks peptidoglycan cell walls of gram-positive bacteria
Macrophages Can Engulf And Digest: Pathogens and signal to the rest of the immune system that there is an invader
Mucosal Surfaces Are Covered With: IgA antibodies
Mast Cells Have Antibodies That: When triggered, can promote the release of inflammatory chemicals. They are often involved in allergic reactions as well.
The Respiratory System Is Involved In pH Control Through The: Bicarbonate buffer system
When Blood pH Decreases, Respiration Rate: Increases to compensate by blowing off carbon dioxide. This causes a left shift in the buffer equation, reducing hydrogen ion concentration.
When Blood pH Increases, Respiration Rate: Decreases to compensate by trapping carbon dioxide. This causes a right shift in the buffer equation, which increases hydrogen ion conc.
Created by: SamB91
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