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History Exam #2

WWI, Great Depression, WWII, etc.

Henry George Political Economist who wrote, "Progress and Poverty
Edward Bellamy Took a futuristic view of America in his book, "Looking Backward"
The Bitter Cry A pamphlet which circulated in England, drew attention to the plight of London factory workers.
Exposition Universelle (1900) Worlds Fair in Paris, displaying achievements of past century and innovations for the future
John Dewey Wrote "Democracy and Education," believed ideas = change
William James Believed ideas have consequences.
Muckraker A journalist who dug up dirt
Theodore Roosevelt Coined the term "Muckraker," in addition to lots of other accomplishments.
Lincoln Steffens Muckraker who wrote, "The Shame of the Cities"
Ida Tarbell Muckraker who took on John Rockefeller in her book, "The History of the Standard Oil Company"
David Graham Phillips Muckraker who exposed U.S. Senators accepting bribes in his book, "The Treason of the Senate"
Nelson W. Aldridge Bribe taking Senator exposed by David Graham Phillips
Robert Hunter Wrote the book, "Poverty"
Frank Norris Wrote the book, "The Octopus: A Story of California," about the corruption of the railroads.
Upton Sinclair Wrote "The Jungle," ran for governor of California on EPIC platform (End Poverty In California), lost to establishment
Meat Inspection Act A regulatory measure pushed by Teddy Roosevelt, inspired by "The Jungle," by Upton Sinclair
Florence Kelley Leading social reformer, fought child labor and helped create the National Consumers League
Edgar Gardner Murphy Clergyman, helped form National Child Labor Committee
Josephine Clara Goldmark Labor advocate, fought for equal pay, wrote court case Muller v. Oregon
19th Amendment (1920) Gave women the right to vote.
Margaret Sanger Founded what became Planned Parenthood
Jacob Riis Muckraker who wrote, "How the Other Half Lives"
Charlotte Perkins Gilman Wrote, "Women and Economics" about the importance of women's contributions
18th Amendment "Dry Amendment," effort to prohibit alcohol, aka prohibition
Nickelodeon movie theatre, cost a nickel
Mann Act Prohibited transport of women across across state lines
Frederick Winslow Taylor (Taylorism) 1)centralized planning 2)systematic analysis of each job 3) detailed instructions+close supervision 4)incentive wage system
Samuel Gompers Headed American Federation of Labor (AFL), relied on by President Woodrow Wilson
Loewe v. Lawlor Supreme Court ruling outlawed 'secondary boycotts,' preventing Unions from calling for boycotts against most entities
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire Terrible fire that killed female garment workers in New York. Many fell to death from roof, led to requiring fire escapes.
The Ludlow Massacre Security guards killed women and children, severely damaged Rockefeller name
Bill Haywood Involved in Industrial Workers of the World, and the Western Federation of Miners
Mary Harris Jones Helped the poor, "Mother Jones" named after her
Tom Johnson Cleveland Mayor, wrote, "The City and the Hope of Democracy"
Charles Evan Hughes Governor of New York, progressive reformer
M. Hoke Smith Governor of Georgia, progressive reformer
Robert M. LaFollete, Sr. Governor of Wisconsin, progressive reformer
Initiative put issues on ballot
Referendum Have direct election
Recall Ability to remove politicians
President McKinley Shot in Buffalo, NY, by Leon Czolgosz, an anarchist
Teddy Roosevelt's 'Square Deal' Government broke up Northern Securities Co., a major railroad trust
Northern Securities Co. Major U.S. railroad trust whose major stakeholders included J. Hill and J.P. Morgan
Elkins Act (1903) Regulated railroads by outlawing discounts to wealthy or preferred customers
Hepburn Act (1906) Regulated railroads by requiring a uniform accounting system, and published rates
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) Regulation pushed for by TR, inspired by Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"
Dr. Hostetter's Stomach Bitters One of many fake remedies made illegal by the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
Newlands Reclamation Act Funded irrigation projects in arid places
Gifford Pinchot 1st chief of U.S. forest service
John Muir Prominent writer, founder of the Sierra Club
Deborah Davis Wrote, "Guest of Honor," book about Booker T. Washington at the White House
The Niagara Movement Meeting in Canada included W.E.B. DuBois, group renounced Booker T. Washington's accommodation policies
NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
16th Amendment (1913) The Federal Income Tax
Progressive regulation and reform under President Wilson Federal Reserve System (1913), Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914), Federal Trade Commision (1914), Keating-Owen Child-Labor Act (1916)
Adamson Act (1916) First federal law to regulate the length of the workday in private industry, established eight hour workday
Federal Farm Loan Act (1916) Act which sought to increase credit to rural farmers
The 18th, 19th, and 21st Amendments Prohibition, gave women the right to vote, and repealed the eighteenth amendment
Event that triggered World War I The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
Gavrilo Princip Black Hand member who shot Franz Ferdinand, sparked first continental war in Europe since Napoleonic Wars
Pre-WWI Colonial Rivalries Between... Germany v. France ; Russia v. Austria over Balkans ; Britain v. Germany
Triple Entente Alliance between Britain, France, Russia
Triple Alliance Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Ernest Hemingway WWI veteran who wrote "A Farewell to Arms" (1929) and "For Whom the Bell Tolls" (1940)
Schlieffen Plan Plan by German officer to fight a two-front war by quickly defeating France and then turning to face Russia
Gallipoli Campaign Costly failed effort by Britain and France to secure the Dardanelles strait and the city of Istanbul
Armenian Genocide Turkish policy of extermination targeting the Christian Armenian minority
RMS Lusitania U.S. merchant ship that was smuggling arms when sunk by German U-boat, provided pretext for U.S. entry to WWI
William Jennings Bryan Secretary of State during Wilson administration, resigned after the sinking of the Lusitania due to anti-war stance
Robert Lansing Replaced William Jennings Bryan as Wilson's Secretary of State
Louis Brandeis First Jew on Supreme Court
Arthur Zimmerman Wrote a telegram to Mexico which was intercepted
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty between Russia and Germany that lost Russian territory; Lenin accurately predicted they would get territory back
Alexander Kerensky Tried to implement parliamentary government in Russia, but new government overcome by Bolsheviks
Leon Trotsky Took leadership when Lenin was shot
Nicholas II of Russia Last Russian Tsar, murdered along with the rest of the royal family.
George Creel Head of Committee on Public Iinformation
Espionage Act (1917) An act to punish espionage, interference, and insubordination
Trading With the Enemy Act (1917) Law giving President power to oversee or restrict any and all trading between the U.S. and its enemies in wartime
Sedition Act (1918) Broadened the scope of the espionage act to include acts of expression against the U.S. government
Schenck v. U.S. (1919) Clear and present danger interpretation, where Supreme Court ruled that the Espionage Act did not violate right to free speech
Houston Riot (1917) Mutiny of 156 African-American soldiers
John J. Pershing Known as 'Blackjack Pershing,' led U.S. troops in WWI
Doughboys Nickname for U.S. soldiers in WWI
William Gibbs McAdoo Wilson's Secretary of the Treasury, he was primarily responsible for financing America in WWI and made loans to Allies
War Revenue Act (1917) Raised WWI taxes on rich to 77%
Herbert Hoover Under Wilson he was Director of U.S. Food Administration, and headed Commission for Relief in Belgium
War Industries Board Coordinated the purchase of war supplies and encouraged mass production, efficiency, and standardization in U.S. industry
National War Labor Board (NWLB) (WWI) Supported 8-hour workday, equal pay for women, and collective bargaining rights; opposed disruption of war production by strikes
Josephine Dodge Led National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (NAOWS)
Carrie Chapman Catt Led National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA)
Alice Paul Started National Women's Party, thought suffrage groups not aggressive enough
Paris Peace Conference (1919) Peace talks following WWI between major powers
WWI Big Four U.S. (Woodrow Wilson), Great Britain (David Lloyd George), Italy (Vittorio Orlando), and France (Georges Clemenceau)
Treaty of Versailles Signed 5 years after assassination of Archduke Ferdinand; would not include Russia or Germany, or the U.S.
Articles 231 and 232 of the Treaty of Versailles The War Guilt clause and the requirement of Germany to pay reparations
Adolf Hitler German nationalist
John Maynard Keynes U.S. economist who wrote, "The Economic Consequences to Peace," and
Racial Equality Proposal (1919) Proposed by Japanese at Paris Peace Conference, rebuffed
Shandong Problem Article 156 officially gave Shandong to the Japanese
Covenant of the League of Nations resisted by Republican opposition
Henry Cabott Lodge U.S. Senator responsible for the 'Lodge reservations' against League of Nations; penned fourteen reservations
The Irreconcilables Group of 12 to 18 senators who would never support treaty
U.S. Peace Treaties following WWI The U.S. did not sign the Treaty of Versailles, and made separate treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary in 1921
John Reed American who wrote, "Ten Days That Shook the World," buried in Kremlin after death in 1920
Seattle General Strike (1919) Five-day work stoppage by more than 65,000 workers
Steel Strike (1919) Anarchists tried to blow up U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
J. Edgar Hoover Headed anti-radical division
Palmer Raids Attempt by U.S. government to arrest and deport radical leftists
William Joseph Simmons Leader of the KKK in 1920's, preached superiority of white protestants
Birth of a Nation Film by D.W. Griffith glorifying the founding of the KKK
Sacco-Vanzetti Case Court case against two Italian immigrants who were anarchists, discriminated against for political views
Henry Ford Invented the assembly line, the Model T, and paid workers $5 a day
Alfred P. Sloan Introduced organizational chart to corporate America
Second Industrial Revolution Economic change brought about by electricity
William C. Durant Co-Founder of General Motors
Charles F. Kettering Invented automatic starter
Ransom E. Olds Wanted affordable mass produced car
The Dearborn Independent Paper owned by Henry Ford, where anti-semitic and other racist material was often published
WWJ Detroit First commercial radio broadcasting
Charlie Chaplin Actor who starred in film, "The Kid" (1921)
The Jazz Singer first major movie to have sound
Charles Lindbergh First man to fly across Atlantic
F. Scott Fitzgerald Wrote, "The Great Gatsby"
John T. Scopes Guilty of violating the Butler Act which banned teaching human evolution. Represented by Clarence Darrow.
Scopes Trial Scopes represented by Clarence Darrow and Tennessee represented by William Jennings Bryan; over teaching evolution
Aimee Semple McPherson Founded the International Church of the Foursquare Gospel
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act The U.S. would not accept Chinese immigrants
Gentleman's Agreement of 1907 Japanese in San Francisco would not be segregated, but Japan would curtail immigration
Chicago Race Riot (1919) A black boy was killed, triggering violence that killed dozens, both black and white
Marcus Garvey Black nationalist, started the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the African Communities League
Negro World Black newspaper established 1918 in NYC
Black Star Line Shipping line incorporated by Marcus Garvey
Alaine LeRoy Locke Called 'Dean' of Harlem Renaissance, wrote, "The New Negro," an anthology of poetry
Langston Hughes Great black writer, wrote, "The Weary Blues"
Claude McKay Wrote novels, including, "Home to Harlem," (1928) focused on Harlem underbelly
Sinclair Lewis Wrote, "Main Street," about going from a city to a small town, and, "Babbitt," about pressure on middle-class to conform
Bruce Fairchild Barton Wrote, "The Man Nobody Knows," made religious connection between Jesus and American business
Warren G. Harding President of the U.S. after Wilson. Chosen at Republican convention despite not wanting the job; Teapot Dome Scandal
Teapot Dome Scandal Companies were illegally operating on government land
Albert B. Fall First cabinet member to die in U.S. history
Calvin Coolidge Became President after Harding died; chose not to run for reelection in 1928
Herbert Hoover Engineer, wealthy 'self-made' man, faced Great Depression six months after becoming President
Four-Power Treaty A deal to maintain the status quo in the pacific, between U.S., Japan, Great Britain, and France
Five-Power Treaty Deal to limit naval weaponry, preventing arms race; between U.S., Japan, Britain, France, and Italy (4-power + Italy)
Nine-Power Treaty Treaty affirming nominal integrity of China, and America's Open Door policy
Kellogg-Briand Pact Idealistic attempt to make war illegal
Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act Attempt to raise tariffs that started trade war, sharply reducing U.S. international trade
Sheppard-Towner Act Provided federal funding for maternal and child care
Al Smith Reform governor in New York; Democratic Presidential nominee against Hoover, Catholic religious identity a disadvantage
Wall Street Crash (1929) Known as 'black Tuesday,' signaled the Great Depression
John Kenneth Galbraith Harvard economist who wrote, "The Great Crash 1929"
Amity Shlaes Author who wrote, "The Forgotten Man"
John Steinbeck Wrote, "The Grapes of Wrath"
Okie Slang term for those who came from Oklahoma to California to pick fruit; consequence of dust bowl
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) Established in 1934 to restore trust of depositors in banks
Irving Fisher Argued that predominant cause of the Great Depression was over-indebtedness and deflation
Glass-Steagall Legislation Regulated banking
Emergency Relief and Construction Act Established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Federal Home Loan Bank Act Law passed under Hoover to lower the cost of home ownership
Reconstruction Finance Corporation Loan source to fund public works projects across the country
Giuseppe Zangara Attempted to kill FDR, shot and killed Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak instead
Smedley Butler U.S. Major General who outed coup against FDR, wrote, "War is a Racket"
Henry A. Wallace One of FDR's Vice Presidents, dropped by 1944 becuase he was seen as too liberal
Frances Perkins First woman appointed to U.S. cabinet
FDR's Brains Trust Group of trusted academic advisors, originally: Raymond Moley, Rexford Guy Tugwell, and Adolf A. Berle, from Columbia University
Harry Hopkins Diplomat, troubleshooter, spoke for FDR
Emergency Banking Act Banks closed for restructuring during a four-day 'bank holiday'
Beer-Wine Revenue Act The end of prohibition, when alcohol was turned into tax dollars
Federal Emergency Relief Adminisration (FERA) Gave grants and loans to states
Civil Works Administration Created temporary jobs for millions of unemployed workers
Public Works Administration Large-scale public works construction agency
United States v. Butler Supreme Court ruled that the Agricultural Adjustment Act was unconstitutional
Floyd B. Olsen Minnesota politician who questioned capitalism
Francis Townsend Created pension plan in California that inspired Social Security
Charles Coughlin Radical priest who supported FDR, lost following after criticizing President and Jews, led National Union for Social Justice
The Taylor Grazing Act Had to pay to graze on government land
Works Progress Administration (WPA) Replaced FERA in 1935;
Rural Electrification Act Provided federal loans to create infrastructure (electrify) parts of rural America
National Industrial Recovery Act Supreme Court struck it down, revoking collective bargaining in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Rural building projects, planting trees, mostly young people
Huey Long In 1928 ran for governor of Louisiana; set new taxes on oil and gas industry to pay for schools, infrastructure; founded Share Our Wealth
Wagner Act (1935) Officially called National Labor Relations Act, it allowed collective bargaining
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) Principle founders were: John L. Lewis, Sidney Hillman, and David Dubinsky
Memorial Day Massacre (1937) Chicago police shot and killed 10 unarmed protesters
Scottsboro Boys 9 young black men on train with 2 white women turned into a nightmare in Scottsboro with men falsely accused
Fair Labor Standards Act Created maximum 44-hour, 7-day work week, and created minimum wage; last piece of New Deal legislation
Hank Greenberg First Jewish baseball Hall-of-Famer
Fulgencia Batista Zaldivar Cuban leader, American puppet
Mein Kampf "My Struggle," by Adolf Hitler
Gerald Nye Senator (South Dakota) who was deeply suspicious of American involvement abroad; Nye committee passed Neutrality Acts
Spanish Civil War Started by Francisco Franco
Abraham Lincoln Brigade American brigade that fought in the Spanish Civil War
Anschluss The annexation of Austria by Germany
Munich Agreement Designed to appease Hitler, who wanted the Sudetenland; Neville Chamberlain gave Hitler Czeckoslovakia
A.J.P. Taylor Wrote, "The Origins of the Second World War"
Molotov-Ribbontrop Pact Officially called the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; promise of peace
General Leslie Groves Put in charge of overseeing Manhattan Project
I. Robert Oppenheimer Genius who led researchers working on the Manhattan Project
Manstein Plan German plan to invade France, crafted by Erich von Manstein
Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies Political action group in favor of supporting the British in WWII
America First Committee Led by Charles Lindbergh, opposed to U.S. involvement in WWII
Selective Training and Service Act (1940) First peacetime military draft in U.S. history
Operation Barbarossa Germany's initially successful invasion of Russia
Battle of Moscow 1,000,000 Germans vs. 1,200,000 Soviet Russians
Iris Chang Wrote, "The Rape of Nanking"
Husband E. Kimmel Admiral, Commander-in-Chief of Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor
Walter Short Lieutenant General of Army, U.S. military commander at Pearl Harbor
Roberts Commision Found Husband Kimmel and Walter Short (commanders at Pearl Harbor when Japanese attacked) guilty of dereliction of duty
War Production Board (WPB) Supervised production of war materials, converted peacetime economy to wartime
Donald M. Nelson Put in charge of WPB (War Production Board)
National War Labor Board Attempt to forestall labor-management problems during WWII
Second Revenue Act (1940) Funded government during WWII
Executive Order 9066 Order to round up Japanese in America
Hirabayashi v. United States Supreme Court ruled that it was okay to arrest ethnic group
Korematsu v. United States Supreme Court ruled against Japanese individual pressing for rights as an American citizen
442nd Infantry Regiment All-Japanese regiment in U.S. Army in Europe during WWII
Executive Order 8802 Prohibited discrimination in national war industries
G.I. Bill U.S. government attempt to assist vets coming home
Women's Army Corps (WAC) The women's branch of the United States Army
WAVES Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service
FDR's "Four Freedoms" Freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, freedom from fear
Henry R. Luce Wrote, "The American Century," predicting that America would be the dominant power in the world
Jonathan M. Wainwright General in Philippines who was POW for duration of WWII
Battle of the Coral Sea Japanese Surprised U.S., but moved away from Australia
Battle of Midway Decisive turning point in Pacific where Japanese lost four aircraft carriers
The Tokyo Fire Raids (1945) Killed between 80,000 and 200,000 Japanese
Erwin Rommel Called the desert fox, he was a brilliant German tank commander; part of a failed conspiracy to kill Hitler
Operation Overland Allies move to take beaches
Kurt Vonnegut Wrote, "Slaughterhouse Five," a satirical story about a character named Billy Pilgrim and the fire-bombing of Dresden
Yalta Conference FDR's last conference
Bretton Woods Conference Created IMF and World Bank
Potsdam Conference Last Allied conference, Truman in attendance
Created by: jpretzer