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MCAT Org. Chem Ch. 9

TermDefinition
Amides Are The Condensation Products Of: Carboxylic acids and ammonia or amines
Suffix For Amides: -amide. Alkyl groups on a substituted amide are written at the beginning of the name with the prefix N-
Cyclic Amides Are Called: Lactams. They are named by the Greek letter of the carbon forming the bond with the nitrogen. (β-lactam, γ-lactam, etc)
Esters Are The Condensation Products Of: Carboxylic acids with alcohols (Fischer esterification)
Suffix Of Esters: -oate.
The Esterifying Group Of An Ester Is Written As: A substituent without a number
Cyclic Esters Are Called: Lactones. They are named by the number of carbons in the ring, and the Greek letter of the carbon forming the bond with the oxygen (α-acetolactone, β-propiolactone, etc)
Triacylglycerols Are A Form Of: Fat storage which include three ester bonds between glycerol and fatty acids
Saponification Is: The breakdown of fat using a strong base to form a soap (salts of long-chain carboxylic acids)
Anhydrides Are: The condensation dimers of carboxylic acids.
Symmetric Anhydrides Are Named For: Parent carboxylic acid followed by anhydride.
Assymetric Anhydrides Are Named By: Listing the parent carboxylic acids alphabetically followed by anhydride
IN Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions, Anhydrides Are More Reactive Than: Esters which are more reactive than amides
Steric Hindrances Describes: When a reaction cannot proceed (or significantly slows) because of substituents crowding the reactive site
Protecting Groups Such As Acetals Can Be Used To: Increase steric hindrance or otherwise decrease the reactivity of a particular portion of a molecule
Induction Refers To: Uneven distribution of charge across a sigma bond because of differences in electronegativity.
The More Electronegative Groups In A Carbonyl-Containing Compound: The greater its reactivity
Conjugation Refers To: The presence of alternating single and multiple bonds which creates delocalized pi-electron clouds above and below the plane of the molecule.
Electrons Experience Resonance Through: The unhybridized p-orbitals which increases stability.
Conjugated Carbonyl-Containing Compounds Are More Reactive Because: They can stabilize their transition states
Increased Strain In A Molecule Can Make It: More reactive.
β-lactams Are Prone To Hydrolysis Because: They have significant ring strain
Ring Strain Is Due To: Torsional strain from eclipsing interactions and angle strain from compressing bond angles below 109.5 degrees.
All Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Can Undergo: Nucleophilic substitution reactions. The rates at which they do so depends on their relative reactivities.
Anhydrides Can Be Cleaved By Th Addition Of A: Nucleophile
Addition Of Ammonia Or An Amine Results In: An amide and a carboxylic acid
Addition Of An Alcohol Results In: An ester and a carboxylic acid
Addition Of Water Results In: Two carboxylic acids
Transesterification: The exchange of one esterifying group for another on an ester.
The Attacking Nucleophile In Transesterification Is: An alcohol
Amides Can Be Hydrolyzed To: Carboxylic acids under strongly acidic or basic conditions.
The Attacking Nucleophile Of Amides Hydrolyzing Into Carboxylic Acids Is: Water or the hydroxide anion
Created by: SamB91