Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

MCAT Org. Chem Ch. 8

Carboxylic Acids Contain: A carbonyl and a hydroxyl group connected to the same carbon. They are always terminal groups.
Suffix For Carboxylic Acids: -oic acid
Suffix For Salts Of Carboxylic Acids -oate
Suffix For Salts Of Dicarboxylic Acids -dioic acids
Carboxylic Acids Are: Polar and hydrogen bond very well, which results in high boiling points.
Carboxylic Acids Often Exist As: Dimers in solution
The Acidity Of A Carboxylic Acid Is Enhanced By: The resonance between its oxygen atoms. This can be further enhanced by substituents that are electron withdrawing and decreased by substituents that are electron-donating.
β-dicarboxylic acids Have A α-hydrogen That Is: Highly acidic
Carboxylic Acids Can Be Made By: The oxidation of primary alcohols or aldehydes using an oxidizing agent like potassium permanganate (KMnO4)
First Two Steps Of The Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution (Reaction In Carboxylic Acids): A nucleophile attacks the electrophilic carbonyl carbon, which opens the carbonyl and forms a tetrahedral intermediate. The carbonyl reforms and kicks off the leaving group.
Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Rxn Continued: If the nucleophile is ammonia or an amine An amide is formed. Amides are given the suffix, -amid. Cyclic amides are called lactams.
Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Rxn Continued: If the nucleophile is an alcohol: An ester is formed. Esters are given the suffix: -oate. Cyclic esters are called lactones.
Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution Rxn Continued: If The Nucleophile Is Another Carboxylic Acid: An anhydride is formed. Both linear and cyclic anhydrides are given the suffix anhydride.
Carboxylic Acids Can Be Reduced To A Primary Alcohol With: A strong reducing agent like lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4). Aldehyde intermediates are formed but are also reduced to primary alcohols.
Sodium Borohydride (NaBH4) Is: A common reducing agent for other organic reactions, but is not strong enough to reduce a carboxylic acid
β-Dicarboxylic Acids And Other β-keto Acids Can Undergo: Spontaneous decarboxylation when heated, losing a carbon as carbon dioxide. This reaction proceeds via a six-membered cyclic intermediate.
Mixing Long-Chain Carboxylic Acids (Fatty Acids) With A Strong Base Results In: The formation of salt called soap. The process is called saponification.
Soaps Contain: A Hydrophilic carboxylate head and hydrophobic alkyl chain tail
Soaps Organize In Hydrophilic Environments To Form: Micelles.
A Micelle Dissolves: Nonpolar organic molecules in its interior and can be solvated with water due to its exterior shell of hydrophilic groups.
Created by: SamB91



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards