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MCAT Org. Chem Ch. 6

TermDefinition
Aldehydes Terminal functional groups containing a carbonyl bound to at least one hydrogen. Suffix: -al. Prefix: oxo-. In rings, suffix: -carbaldehyde
Ketones Internal functional groups containing a carbonyl bound to two alkyl chains. Suffix: -one. Prefix: oxo- or keto-
Reactivity Of A Carbonyl (C=O) Is Dictated By: The polarity of the double bond. The carbon has a partial pos. charge and is therefore electrophilic.
Carbonyl-Containing Compounds Have Higher Boiling Points Than: Equivalent alkanes because of dipole interactions.
Alcohols Have Higher Boiling Points Than Carbonyls Because Of: Hydrogen bonding
Aldehydes And Ketones Are Commonly Produced By: Oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols
Pyridinium Chlorochromate (PCC) Is A Weak Oxidizing Agent Used For: Synthesizing aldehydes or the reaction will continue oxidizing to the level of the carboxylic acid
Various Oxidizing Agents Can Be Used For Ketones Such As Dichromate, Chromium Trioxide, or PCC Because: Ketones are the most oxidized functional group for secondary carbons
When A Nucleophile Attacks And Forms A Bond With A Carbonyl Carbon: Electrons in the pi bond are pushed to oxygen. If there is no good leaving group, carbonyl will remain open and is protonated to form an alcohol. If there is a good leaving group, the carbonyl will reform and kick off the leaving group.
In Hydration Reactions, Water Adds To A Carbonyl To Form: A geminal diol
When One Equivalent Of Alcohol Reacts With An Aldehyde: A hemiacetal is formed.
When One Equivalent Of Alcohol Reacts With A Ketone: A hemiketal is formed.
When Another Equiv. Of Alcohol Reacts With A Hemiacetal Via Nucleophilic Substitution: An acetal is formed.
When Another Equiv. Of Alcohol Reacts With A Hemiketal Via Nucleophilic Substitution A ketal is formed
Nitrogen And Nitrogen Derivatives React With Carbonyls To Form: Imines, oximes, hydrazones, and semicarbazones
Imines Can Tautomerize To Form: Enamines
Hydrogen Cyanide Reacts With Carbonyls For Form: Cyanohydrins
Aldehydes Can Be Oxidized To: Carboxylic acids using an oxidizing agent like KMnO4, CrO3, Ag2O, or H2O2.
Aldehydes Can Be Further Reduced To: Secondary alcohols via hydride reagents (LiAlH4, NaBH4)
Ketones Can Be Reduced To: Secondary alcohols via hydride reagents.
Ketones Cannot Be Further Oxidized (True Or False) TRUE
Created by: SamB91