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AP USH Chapter 37

The Eisenhower Era

TermDefinition
Dwight Eisenhower When elected President, he was the most popular American; "I like Ike!" button; elected to two consecutive terms in 1952 and 1956. President during the prosperous 1950's. Modern Republicanism---didn't undo the New Deal of the Democrats.
Earl Warren Chief Justice and former governor of California; brought originally taboo social issues, such as civil rights to African Americans, to the attention of Congress and the country. Known for the "Brown v. Board of Education" case of 1954.
Rosa Parks Known as the "mother of the civil rights movement." In December of 1955, Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white rider. She was jailed and fined $14 for the offense. This led to Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Martin Luther King Jr. An American Baptist minister, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
Ho Chi Minh The Vietnamese leader who believed in Asian nationalism and anti-colonialism in his country. He became increasingly communist. He lead the North Vietnamese against the U.S. and the south Vietnamese. He was the enemy in Vietnam.
Ngo Ding Diem Ngo Dinh Diem, a strong anti-communist, proclaimed South Vietnam a republic on Oct. 26, 1956 and became its first president. He was formerly the Premier of Vietnam. He was assassinated by a military coup d'etat.
Gamal Abdel Nasser The hard-nosed Arab-nationalist president of Egypt during the Suez Canal crisis in 1956.
Nikita Khrushchev The premier of Russia during the space race between Russia and the United States. He used many propaganda techniques to try to fool the world of Russia's intentions. President's Eisenhower and Kennedy dealt with his communist attitudes.
Fidel Castro He engineered a revolution in Cuba in 1959. He denounced the imperialists and took valuable American property for a land-distribution program. His dictatorship became similar to Stalin's in Russia.
John F. Kennedy He represented the democratic party with his "New Frontier" platform in the 1960 election. He was a major contributor to the space program and to the civil rights movement. He was assassinated on Nov. 22, 1963.
McCarthyism McCarthyism was the communist witch hunts of the 1950's. This fear of Communism ruined many lives and families. The Senate hearings on communism were run by Senator Joseph McCarthy.
Brass High-ranking military officers
Taboo A social prohibition or rule that results from strict tradition or convention
Self-incrimination Sworn testimony in a trial or other legal proceeding that forces a person to admit to criminally indictable acts; the Fifth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution forbids compelling such testimony
Embezzlement The fraudulent appropriation or theft of funds entrusted to one's care
Secondary Boycott Industrial action by a trade union in support of a strike initiated by workers in another, separate enterprise.
Thermonuclear Concerning the heat released in nuclear fission; specifically, the use of that heat in hydrogen bombs
Confiscation The seizure of property b a public authority, often as a penalty
Troubleshooter An expert in resolving diplomatic or political disputes
"Creeping Socialism" A slow but sure move to increase the powers of government toward a socialist government.
Military-Industrial Complex During the Cold War military funding increased tremendously and at the end of Eisenhower's administration he warned about forming a "military-industrial complex" in which industry received huge government contracts to build for the military.
Desegregation During the 1960's, integration of southern universities began. President Kennedy supported black's civil rights. Some desegregation was painless, but much of it resulted in violent campaigns and riots.
"Massive Retaliation" John Foster Dulles formulated this policy for Eisenhower. It stated that America would be willing to use nuclear weapons against aggressor nations instead of "limited" warfare. This led to the stockpiling of nuclear weapons.
Brown v. Board of Education The case brought before the Supreme Court in May 1954 in which the Court ruled that segregation of races in public schools was unconstitutional.
Plessy v. Ferguson A landmark United States Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal."
White Citizens' Councils With about 15,000 members, mostly in the South, the group was well known for its opposition to racial integration in the South.
Civil Rights Act of 1957 Set up a permanent Civil Rights Commission to investigate civil rights violations and authorized the use of injunctions to protect voting rights
Geneva Conference The Geneva conference split the nation of Vietnam roughly in half along the seventeenth parallel., and established a shaky peace in the nation of Laos.
South East Asia Treaty Organization An Asian alliance, set up by Secretary Dulles on the model of NATO, to help support the anticommunist regime in South Vietnam
Hungarian Revolt When the Hungarians tried to win their freedom from the Communist regime in 1956, they were crushed down by Soviet tanks. There was killing and slaughtering of the rebels going on by military forces.
Suez Crisis When President Nasser of Egypt announced his intention to build a damn in the Suez to provide power and irrigation to Egypt, the United States offered its financial support, withdrawing it when Nasser spoke with the Communists on the subject.
Eisenhower Doctrine Congress and US President pledged US military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by communist aggression. Under the Doctrine the US was able to openly land several thousand troops and help restore order without taking a single life.
Ladrum-Griffith Act Specially tailored to make labor officials responsible for the union's financial affairs, to prevent bully-boy tactics, ensure democratic voting practices within unions, outlaw secondary boycotts, and restrict picketing.
U-2 Incident Under Eisenhower administration, the American U-2 spy plane was shot down over Russia. Eisenhower was forced to step up and assume personal responsibility for the incident. Incident kept Khrushchev from meeting with Eisenhower.
Sputnik The first satellite ever launched into space, was launched by the Russians; began the "race for space" where Americans competed with the Russians to get farther into space. Was launched on Oct. 4, 1957 (Sputnik I).
"Missile Gap" The United States and the Soviet Union were involved in a race to discover who had more missiles and war equipment. The missile gap was the difference in how much the United States had compared to how much the Soviet Union had.
National Defense Education Act In 1958 Congress made the NDEA, authorizing $887 million in loans to needy college students and in grants for the purpose of improving the teaching of the sciences and languages.
Created by: rkang16