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AP USH Chapter 36

The Cold War Begins

TermDefinition
Harry S. Truman He was called the "accidental president" and "the average man's average man." He was the first president in many years without a college education. He was the 33rd president of the United States.
George F. Kennan A brilliant young diplomat, and a Soviet specialist, who crafted the "containment doctrine."
Douglas MacArthur Allied commander and five star general in the U.S. army. He headed the U.S. army in Japan and Korea but was fired by Truman for questioning the actions of his superiors in the midst of the Korean war.
Dean Acheson Secretary of State under Truman. Played a central role in defining American foreign policy during the Cold War. He helped design the Marshall Plan, develop the Truman Doctrine, and create the NATO.
Joseph McCarthy Senator from Wisconsin who was strongly against communism. McCarthy claimed there were many communists in the State Department. With little evidence his hunt for communists was considered a type of "witch-hunt." He lost his seat in congress.
Julius and Ethel Rosenburg They were convicted in 1951 of giving atomic bomb data found by American scientists to the Soviet Union. They are the only Americans ever executed during peacetime for espionage.
Benjamin Spock An American pediatrician who was the first to study psychoanalysis to try to understand children's needs and family dynamics.
J. Strom Thurmond He was nominated for president on a States' Rights Party (Dixiecrats) in the 1948 election. Split southern Democrats from the party due to Truman's stand in favor of Civil Rights for African American.
Henry Wallace The Progressive Party's candidate in the 1948 presidential election. He frequently criticized Truman's foreign policy.
Thomas Dewey He was Governor of New York State and was elected District Attorney in 1937. He was Governor 3 different times and ran for president twice although he was defeated both times
Adlai Stevenson The Democratic candidate who ran against Eisenhower in 1952. His intellectual speeches earned him and his supporters the term "eggheads". Lost to Eisenhower.
Dwight Eisenhower Called "The Republican's Choice" along with his vice president Richard Nixon. He was the commander of the allied forces in Europe, the army chief-of-staff after the war, and the director of NATO for two years.
Richard M. Nixon He was a committee member of the House of Representatives, Committee on Un-American Activities (to investigate "subversion"). He tried to catch Alger Hiss who was accused of being a communist agent in the 1930's.
Yalta Conference A conference between Stalin and FDR in an attempt to get Russian support in the highly anticipated invasion of Japan
Cold War The Cold War began in 1945 after WWII. It was a global ideological conflict between democracy and communism. (United States versus Soviet Union)
United Nations An international organization formed in 1945 to increase political and economic cooperation among member countries.
Nuremberg Trials A series of court proceedings held in Germany after World War II, in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity.
Iron Curtain The "iron curtain" refers to the secrecy and isolation of the Soviet Union and its satellite states, East Germany, Hungary, and Poland, after World War II. The phrase was first used by Winston Churchill while he was giving a speech in the United States.
Berlin Airlift The USSR had embargoed all supplies that would go into the Allied Germany. In response, America used many planes to take and drop food and supplies into Berlin to show that they wanted to maintain control. It worked, the Soviets lifted the blockade.
Containment US foreign policy after WWII designed to stop the spread of communism. (Truman Doctrine)
Truman Doctrine Truman wanted to prevent the spread of communism. He wanted it "contained". The first implementation of the Truman Doctrine was $400 million given to aid Greece and Turkey to prevent a communist takeover.
Marshall Plan Issued in response to the struggling European countries, the Marshall Plan would allow the U.S. to give financial assistance to certain countries.
National Security Act Passed by Congress in 1947 and it created the Department of Defense. It also established a National Security Council to advise the president on security matters and a Central Intelligence Agency to coordinate the government foreign fact-gathering.
White Flight A term that originated in the United States, starting in the mid-20th century, and applied to the large-scale migration of whites of various European ancestries from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions.
Sun Belt Shorthand name for the southern and western regions of the U.S. that experienced the highest rates of growth after WWII
North Atlantic Treaty Organization Military alliance between the US, Canada and 10 European nations signed on April 4, 1949. It was committed to building military defense of Europe against Communist Russia. Dwight D.Eisenhower became the Supreme Commander of NATO
Taft-Hartley Act It outlawed the "closed" shop, made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdictional disputes among themselves, and required union leaders to take a non-Communist oath.
House Committee on Un-American Activities An investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda, accused people of being communists and "blacklisted" them.
McCarren Act Required Communists to register and prohibited them from working for the government. Truman described it as a long step toward totalitarianism. Was a response to the onset of the Korean war.
Point Four Program The Point Four Program was a technical assistance program for "developing countries" announced by United States President Harry S. Truman in his inaugural address on January 20, 1949.
Fair Deal Made by Truman in his 1949 message to Congress. It was a program that called for improved housing , full employment, higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVA's, and the extension of social security.
38th Parallel The line dividing Korea into two sections, north of the parallel the communist Soviet Union was in charge and south of the parallel was democratic America was in charge. This line would become the demilitarized zone after the Korean conflict.
NSC-68 First drawn up in 1950, NSC-68, or National Security Council Memorandum Number 68, was buried until the Korean crisis later that year. This document suggested that the U.S. could afford to spend upward of 50% of its gross national product for security.
Inchon Landing The landing of UN troops, by General Douglas MacArthur, behind enemy lines at Inchon in Korea. In order to push back the North Korean troops.
Gross National Product The market value of all the products and services produced in one year by labour and property supplied by the citizens of a country.
Agribusiness The business of agricultural production.
Population Curve Growth curves are also common tools in ecological studies; they are used to track the rise and fall of populations of plants, animals, and other multicellular organisms over time.
Precinct A district of a city or town as defined for police purposes.
Protege a person who is guided and supported by an older and more experienced or influential person.
Superpower A state with a dominant position in international relations and is characterised by its unparalleled ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
Exchange Rates The value of one currency for the purpose of conversion to another.
Underdeveloped Not advanced economically.
Military Occupation Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.
Communist-fronter One who belongs to an ostensibly independent political, economic, or social organization that is secretly controlled by the Communist party.
Politburo The small ruling executive body that controlled the Central Committee of the Soviet Communist party, and hence dictated the political policies of the Soviet, Chinese, and other Communist parties
Perimeter The outer boundary of a defined territory.
Created by: rkang16