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MCAT Beh. Sci Ch. 6

TermDefinition
Self-concept Sum of the ways in which we describe ourselves: In the present, who we used to be, and who we might be in the future.
Identities Individual components of our self-concept related to the groups to which we belong. Ex's: Religious affiliation, sexual orientation, and ethnic and national affiliations
Self-esteem Our evaluation of ourselves. This relies on the idea that the closer our actual self is to our ideal self and our ought self, the higher our self-esteem will be.
Self-efficacy Degree to which we see ourselves as being capable at a given skill or in a given situation.
Learned Helplessness Results When: People placed in a consistently hopeless scenario, self-efficacy can be diminished to the point
Locus Of Control Self evaluation that refers to the way we characterize the influences in our lives.
People With An INTERNAL Locus Of Control: See their successes and failures as a result of their own characteristics and actions
People With An EXTERNAL Locus Of Control: Perceive outside factors as having more of an influence in their lives.
Freud's Psychosexual Stage Of Personality Development Are Based ON: Tensions caused by the libido. Failure at any given stage leads to fixation that causes personality disorders.
Freud's Stages (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latent, And Genital) Are Based On: Erogenous zones that are the focus of each phase of development.
Erikson's stages Of Psychosocial Development Stem From: Conflicts that occur throughout life (trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority identity vs. role confusion, intimacy vs. isolation, generativity vs. stagnation, integrity vs. despair)
Kohlberg's Stages Of Moral Development Describe: Approaches of individuals to resolving moral dilemmas. Six stages are divided into three: preconventional, conventional, and postconvential.
Vygotsky Described Development Of: Language, culture, and skills.
Vygotsky's Zone Of Proximal Development Describes those skills that a child has not yet mastered and require a more knowledgeable other to accomplish.
Imitation And Role-Taking Are: Common ways children learn from others.
Reference Group In Our Self-Concept Is: The group to which we compare ourselves.
Psychoanalytic Perspective Views: Personality as resulting from unconscious urges and desires.
ID (What Freud's Theories Are Based On) Base urges of survival and reproduction
Superego (What Freud's Theories Are Based On) Idealist and perfectionist
Ego (What Freud's Theories Are Based On) The mediator between the two and the conscious mind
The Ego Makes Use Of Defense Mechanisms To: Reduce stress caused by the urges of the id and the superego.
Jung's Collective Unconscious: Links all humans together. He viewed personality as being influenced by archetypes.
Humanistic Perspective Emphasizes: The internal feelings of healthy individuals as they strive toward happiness and self-realization
Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs And Rogers' Therapeutic Approach Of Unconditional Positive Regard Flow From: The humanistic view of personality
Type And Trait Theorists Believe: Personality can be described as a number of identifiable traits that carry characteristic behaviors
Type Theories Of Personality Include: Ancient Greek notion of humors, Sheldon's somatotypes, division in Types A and B, and the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory
PEN, Psychoticism: (Eysencks' Three Major Traits Of Individuals) Non-conformity
PEN, Extraversion: (Eysencks' Three Major Traits Of Individuals) Tolerance for social interaction and stimulation
PEN, Neuroticism: (Eysencks' Three Major Traits Of Individuals) Arousal in stressful situations
Big Five Of Major Traits Previously From Eysencks' PEN Openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
Cardinal Traits From Allport: Traits around which a person organizes his or her life though not everyone develops a cardinal trait.
Central Traits From Allport: Major characteristics of the personality
Secondary Traits From Allport: Personal characteristics and are limited in occurrence
Social Cognitive Perspective: Individuals interact with their environment in a cycle called reciprocal determinism. Therefore, people mold their environments according to their personalities, and those environments in turn shape our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
Behaviorist Perspective: Personality can be described as the behaviors one has learned from prior rewards and punishments.
Biological Theorists Claim That Behaviors Can Be Explained By: Genetic expression
Created by: SamB91