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SOL Review: USHist

Essential Knowledge Review for United States History (Grade 11)

QuestionAnswer
United States History
What group of people settled the New England colonies Puritans
Why did the Puritans come to the new colonies To escape religious persecution
What type of settlement pattern did they use A “covenant community”
What motivations influence their settlement pattern and colony structures They formed a community based on principles of the Mayflower Compact and Puritan religious beliefs.
Were the Puritans tolerant of other religions No
Settlers of the Middle Colonies mostly came from which European countries England, Holland and Germany
Why did settlers of the Middle Colonies come to America They sought religious freedom and economic opportunity
What was the name of the first elected assembly in the New World Virginia House of Burgesses
When was Jamestown established 1607
What impact did English and Spanish settlers have on the native populations living in the New World Violent conflicts with Native Americans, Natives lost territory, succumbed to disease.
What impact did French settlers have on native populations More cooperative with natives, not interested in settling area, just wanted to hunt for furs.
The economy of the New England colonies was based on what Economy based on shipbuilding, fishing, lumbering, small-scale subsistence farming, and eventually, manufacturing. The colonies prospered, reflecting the Puritans strong belief in the values of hard work and thrift.
How did the economic activity of the Middle Colonies reflect their geography and the origin of their settlers NY, NJ, PA, MD and DE developed economies based on shipbuilding, small-scale farming, and trading. NYC and Philly began to grow as commercial seaports and commercial centers.
How did the economic activity of the Southern colonies reflect the geography and the origin of their settlers Virginia and other Southern colonies developed economies based on large plantations that grew cash crops.
What were the major cash crops of the southern colonies Tobacco, Indigo and Rice
What was New England’s colonial society based upon Religious standing
What was the Middle Colonies society based upon Religious tolerance, flexible social structure and development of a middle class
What was the Southern colonies society based upon Family status and ownership of land
What was the “Great Awakening” A religious movement that swept both Europe and the colonies during the mid-1700s.
What did the “Great Awakening” lead to Rapid growth of evangelical religions such as the Methodists and Baptists and challenged the established religious and governmental order.
The “Great Awakening” laid one of the social foundations for the American Revolution True/False True
What is an indentured servant Poor persons who agreed to work on plantations for a period of time in return for their passage from Europe or relief from debts/
What is the “Middle Passage” The route by which enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas to work on plantations as slave labor.
The development of a slavery-based agricultural economy in the Southern colonies would eventually lead to what Conflict between the North and South and the American Civil War
What was the Enlightenment A period in Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries saw the development of new ideas about the rights of people and their relationship to their rulers.
Who was John Locke An Enlightenment philosopher whose ideas, more than any others, influenced the American belief in self-government
What is John Locke’s most famous statement All people are free, equal and have “natural rights” of life, liberty and property that rulers cannot take away.
Locke stated that the government’s powers were limited to those the people have consented to give to it. True/False True
Who was Thomas Paine An English immigrant to America who challenged the rule of the American colonies by the King of England.
What was the name of the famous pamphlet written by Thomas Paine Common Sense
Who was the main author of the Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson
The Declaration of Independence reflected the ideas of which two philosophers Locke and Paine
What did the rivalry in North America between England and France led to French & Indian War
What was the result of the French & Indian War The French were driven out of Canada and their territories in west of the Appalachian Mountains.
After the French and Indian War what actions did the British take that angered the American colonies Proclamation of 1763 and Stamp Act
What was the Proclamation of 1763 Prohibited settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, a region that was costly for the British to protect.
What was the Stamp Act Taxes on legal documents, tea and sugar, to pay for costs incurred during the French and Indian War and for British troops to protect colonists.
What was the Boston Tea Party A group of Massachusetts colonists dressed as Indians raided British ships carrying tea to the colonies. It was stage in opposition to the Stamp Act.
What colony did not send a representative to the First Continental Congress Georgia
What was the significance of the First Continental Congress It was the first time most of the colonies had acted together to show resistance towards British rule.
Where was the first battle of the Revolutionary War Lexington and Concord
What were the soldiers known as who could be read to fight at a moments notice Minutemen
What were the Patriots Believed in complete independence from British rule.
Who were the Loyalists (Tories) Remained loyal to Britain. Believed that taxes were justified to pay for the protection of American settlers from Indian attacks.
Benjamin Franklin negotiated a Treaty of Alliance which country during the Revolutionary War France
Who was the General of the American army during the Revolutionary War George Washington
Which battle ended the Revolutionary War Yorktown
What were some problems with the Articles of Confederation Provided for a weak national government, gave Congress no power to tax or regulate commerce between the states, provided no common currency and gave each state one vote regardless of size.
Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation led to what An effort to draft the first Constitution.
How did delegates to the Constitutional Convention balance power between large and small states They created a Senate where each state gets two senators and a House of Representatives with membership based on population.
To placate southern states how were slaves counted (as far as population is concerned) under the new Constitution Counted as three-fifths of the population when determining representation for the House or Representatives.
How was a too powerful central government avoided Creation of three co-equal branches
What are the three branches of government Legislative, executive and judicial
The powers of the federal government are limited to those listed in what document Constitution
Who was the chairman of the Constitutional Convention George Washington
Who is known as the “Father of the Constitution” James Madison
Who penned the “Virginia Plan” James Madison
What did the “Virginia Plan” propose Three separate branches of government
What type of government did the Federalists favor Strong national government that shared some power with the states.
Why did federalists believe a strong federal government was necessary To facilitate interstate commerce, manage foreign trade, national defense and foreign relations
Why were the anti-Federalists against a strong central government They believed it would usurp the powers of the state government.
What did the anti-Federalists insist be part of the Constitution Bill of Rights
Who wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights George Mason
Who wrote the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom Thomas Jefferson
What did the Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom state Outlawed the practice of government support for one favored church
Who wrote the Bill of Right James Madison
Who was the first President of the United States George Washington
John Adams and Alexander Hamilton were members of which political party Federalists
Thomas Jefferson was a member of which political party Democratic Republicans
What did the Democratic Republicans believe in A weak national government and an agricultural economy.
What did the Federalists believe in A strong national government and industrial economy.
What was the significance of Thomas Jefferson’s election as the 3rd President First election in which power was peacefully transferred from one party to another.
Who was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court during the case of Marbury vs. Madison John Marshall
What was the significance of Marbury vs. Madison Judicial review
What was the significance of McCulloch vs. Maryland Prohibited states from taxing agencies of the federal government
Which President was responsible for the Louisiana Purchase Thomas Jefferson
Who did the United States purchase Louisiana from France (Napoleon)
What two men were sent to explore the land acquired through the Louisiana Purchase Lewis and Clark
What was the name of the Indian women who served as their guide and translator Sacajawea
Who did the Americans defeat in the War of 1812 British
What did the Americans get as a result of their victory Oregon Territory
What was the Monroe Doctrine The United States would not interfere in European affairs but the United States would consider any attempt by European powers to impose their system of any independent state in the Western Hemisphere a threat to its own safety.
What motivated settlers to move into western territories Economic opportunity in the form of land to farm and own
Who invented the Cotton Gin Eli Whitney
What was the significance of the cotton gin Spread slavery based “cotton kingdom” into the Deep South
What two types of transportation helped the growth of an industrial economy and supported the westward movement of settlers Railroads and Canals
American migration into Texas led to an armed revolt against who Mexicans
What famous battle took place in Texas against Mexican forces Alamo
The American victory in the Mexican-American War led to the acquisition of an enormous amount of land that includes which modern-day states CA, NV, UT, AZ and parts of CO and NM
What is “Manifest Destiny” Belief that it was America’s right to control lands that stretched from the Pacific to the Atlantic.
What happened to American Indians living in western lands They were killed or relocated to reservations
What was the “Trail of Tears” Forced migration of Cherokee Indians from Atlantic Coast states to Oklahoma or confined to reservations.
What is an aristocracy A government in which power is given to those believed to be best qualified
What is an aristocrat A member of the aristocracy
What is a Presidential veto Power granted to the President to prevent passage of legislation
What was the “Spoils System” A practice of using public office to benefit the members of the victorious party in an election.
What was the Panic of 1837 The economic situation that resulted from reckless speculation that led to bank failures and dissatisfaction with the use of state banks as depositories for public funds.
How did Andrew Jackson expand democracy He eliminated the previous property requirements so the number of eligible voters increased.
Which president was responsible for introducing the spoils system Jackson
Jackson’s policy of taking money from the national bank and depositing into state banks caused what The Panic of 1837
What type of economy had developed in the Northern states by the early 1800s Industrial
What type of economy had developed in the Southern states by the early 1800s Agricultural
What was the southern economy based on Slave labor
Did the north favor or oppose tariffs on imported manufactured goods Oppose because they protected northern manufacturers from foreign competition
The conflict over slavery grew more bitter and threatened to tear the country apart was a result of expansion in which direction Westward
The abolitionist movement grew in which part of the country North
Who led the abolitionist movement William Lloyd Garrison and many New England religious leaders
Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote what famous book about the horrors of slavery Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Slave revolts in Virginia were led by which two men Nat Turner and Gabriel Prosser
Admission of new states continually led to conflicts over where the new states would be what Slave states or Free states
What was the Missouri Compromise Drew an east-west line through the Louisianan Purchase, which slavery prohibited above the line and allowed below, except that slavery was allowed in Missouri above the line.
What was the Compromise of 1850 California entered as a free state, while the new Southwestern territories acquired from Mexico would decide their own
What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act Repealed the Missouri Compromise by giving people in Kansas the choice whether to allow slavery in their states (popular sovereignty)
What happened as a result of this law Bloody fighting in Kansas between pro and anti slavery forces
What was the main focus of the Lincoln-Douglas debates Lincoln opposed the spread of slavery into the new states; Douglas stood for the idea of “popular sovereignty”.
What was the significance of the Dred Scott decision Overturned efforts to limit the spread of slavery and outraged Northerners
What was the Fugitive Slave Act Made it a crime to harbor, or aid in any way, runaway slaves. Slaves that escaped to free states could be forcibly returned to their owners in the South
Who warned “A house divided against itself cannot stand” Lincoln
The Seneca Falls Declaration was important to the rights of whom Women
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were important to which movement Women’s Suffrage
What does suffrage mean Right to vote
Who won the election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln
What did some Southern states fear Lincoln would do after taking office Abolish slavery
Who was the first state to secede South Carolina
What was the first battle of the Civil War Ft. Sumter (Charleston Harbor, SC)
When was the Emancipation Proclamation given After the Battle of Antietam
What battle is considered the turning point of the Civil War Gettysburg
Where did the Civil War end Appomattox
What two Generals signed the peace treaty Grant and Lee
Who was the most famous leader of the Confederate forces Robert E. Lee
Who was the most famous leader of the Union forces Ulysses S. Grant
Who was Frederick Douglass A former slave who became a prominent black abolitionist
What did the Emancipation Proclamation do Freed those slaves located in “rebelling” states, made the destruction of slavery a Northern war aim and discouraged any interference of foreign governments
What was the Gettysburg Address A speech given by Lincoln
How did Lincoln describe the Civil War in the Gettysburg Address A struggle to preserve a nation that was dedicated to the proposition that “all men are created equal” and that was ruled by a government “of the people, by the people and for the people”.
How did Lincoln view Reconstruction He believed that Reconstruction was a matter of quickly restoring legitimate state governments that were loyal to the Union in the Southern states.
How did Lincoln believe the South should be treated during Reconstruction Lincoln believed that the South shouldn’t be punished but the federal government should act “with malice towards none, with charity for all…to bind up the nation’s wounds…”
After Lincoln was assassinated which political group was able to gain influence in the process of Reconstruction Radical Republicans
What view did Radical Republicans have for Reconstruction They believed the South should be punished and sent troops to occupy the South. They believed that voting and other civil rights should be given to African Americans.
Who succeeded President Lincoln Andrew Johnson
The Radical Republicans and President Johnson constantly clashed over issues concerning what Civil rights of freed slaves, which eventually led to impeachment, but they failed to remove him from office.
What does the13th Amendment state Slavery was abolished in the United States
What does the 14th Amendment state States were prohibited from denying equal rights under the law to any American
What does the 15th Amendment state Voting rights were guaranteed regardless of “race, color, or previous condition of servitude”
What was the Compromise of 1877 In return for support in the electoral college vote from Southern Democrats, the Republicans agreed to end the military occupation of the South.
What was the “Jim Crow” era A period after Reconstruction in the South which denied full rights of American citizenship to African Americans.
What was the economic and social impact of the Civil War on the South The Southern states were left devastated by the war. Railroads, farms and factories were destroyed. The South would remain a backward, agriculture-based economy and the poorest section of the nation for many decades afterwards.
What was the economic and social impact of the Civil War on the North and Midwest They emerged as an industrial economy. It laid the foundation for the sweeping industrialization of the nation (other than the South).
What was the significance of the Transcontinental Railroad Intensified the movement of westward movement of settlers into the states between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Ocean.
The era of the American cowboy were characterized by what Long cattle drives for hundreds of miles over unfenced open land in the West, the only way to get cattle to market.
What was the Homestead Act of 1862 It gave free public land in the western territories to settlers who would live on and farm the land
Who in particular was more likely to move into western territories after the Civil War Southerners and African Americans
What new technologies opened new lands in the West for settlement Railroads and the mechanical reaper
Prior to 1871, most immigrants to America came from where Northern and western Europe (Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway and Sweden)
From 1871 to 1921, most immigrants to American came from where Southern and Eastern Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia, and present-day Yugoslavia and Hungary)
Why did immigrants come to America To seek freedom and better lives for their families
Primarily, what type of work did Chinese immigrants engage in when they came to America Helped build the Transcontinental Railroad
Primarily, what type of work did Slavic, Italian and Polish immigrants engage in when they came to America Coal mining
Where did all immigrants entering the United States enter Ellis Island, NY
Where is the Statue of Liberty located Harbor of New York
What is assimilation The act of becoming a part of something
What played an essential role in assimilating immigrants into American society Public schools
Why was America called a “melting pot” Because many different races and ethnicities all came together and formed a new American identity.
Why did immigrants to the United States face hostility and hardship Because many Americans feared immigrants would take jobs for lower pay. There was also prejudice based on religious and cultural differences.
What was the result of the Chinese Inclusion Act of 1882 and the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921 These laws effectively cut off most immigration to America for several decades.
What cities became key manufacturing and transportation centers as the nation’s industrial growth continued Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and New York
Describe the family life of factory workers. Harsh conditions crowded into tenements and slums.
What were some problems caused by the rapid growth of cities Housing shortages, need for sewage and water systems and public transportation systems.
Who invented the light bulb Thomas Alva Edison
The Bessemer process replaced iron with what new product Steel
Who invented the telephone Alexander Graham Bell
Who were the inventors of the airplane Wright Brothers
Who was responsible for inventing the assembly line Henry Ford
What was the importance of the creation of the light bulb Use of electricity as a source of power and light
What is Andrew Carnegie famous for Steel
What is J.P. Morgan famous for Finance
What is John D. Rockefeller famous for Oil
What is Cornelius Vanderbilt famous for Railroads
What were race relations like in the South after Reconstruction Laws limited African American freedoms
“Jim Crow” laws forced what Separation of the races in public places
What was the significance of the court ruling in Plessy vs. Ferguson The Supreme Court ruled that “separate but equal” did not violate the 14th Amendment, upholding the “Jim Crow” laws.
What was the “Great Migration” The movement of African Americans from the South to the North in search of jobs and to escape poverty and discrimination in the South.
Who was Ida B. Wells A woman who led an anti-lynching campaign and called on the federal government to take action
Who was Booker T. Washington Believed the way to equality was through economic success; he accepted social seperation
Who was W.E.B. DuBois Believed education was meaningless without equality. Supported equality for African Americans by helping form the NAACP
What was the Progressive Movement A use of government to reform problems created by industrialization
What were working conditions in the labor industry like Dangerous working conditions, child labor, low wages, long hours, no job security and no benefits.
What were the goals of the Progressive Movement Government controlled by people, guaranteed economic opportunities through government regulation and elimination of social injustices
What were some progressive accomplishments in local governments New forms to meet needs of increasing urbanization. Commission and council manage
What were some progressive accomplishments in state governments Referendum, Initiative and Recall
The 17th Amendment calls for what Direct Election of Senators
What were Muckrakers Investigative Journalist
What did they write about Child Labor, working conditions
The Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, American Railway Union and Industrial Ladies’ Garment Workers Union were all what Labor Unions
Why is Samuel Gompers famous Created American Federation of Labor
Why is Eugene Debs famous Created American Railway Union
List a few of the famous strikes of the Industrial Revolution. Haymarket Strike, Homestead Strike, and Pullman Strike
What did people gain for joining labor unions or going on strike Better pay, limited work hours and regulated work conditions
What is the significance of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act Prevents any business structure that creates a monopoly
What was the significance of the Clayton Anti-Trust Act Outlawed price fixing
Who was the leader of the Women’s Movement Susan B. Anthony
What was a result of the Women’s Movement 19th Amendment
What does the 19th Amendement state Women have the right to vote
What was the purpose of anti-trust laws Outlaw price fixing, prevents monopolies
What is Susan B. Anthony remembered for Advocate for women’s suffrage
The purpose of the United States’ “Open Door” policy was to create trading right with which country China
Which President was famous for “Dollar Diplomacy” Taft
What were the results of the Spanish American War Puerto Rico was annexed by the US, The US asserted the right to intervene in Cuban affairs, annexation of the Philippines
What structure was built to link the Caribbean with the Pacific Panama Canal
Who did the United States want Panama to gain independence from Columbia
When did World War I begin 1914
When the war first began which countries were involved Germany and Austria-Hungary against Britain, France and Russia
When did America enter World War I End of 1917/Beginning of 1918
Why did the U.S. become involved in World War I Continuing German submarine warfare (Lusitania), Freedom of the Sea, Zimmerman telegram and American ties to Great Britain.
What was the result of America’s entrance into World War I America’s military resources of soldiers and war materials led to Germany’s defeat.
Most of the battles of World War I took place where Western Front (France)
Who was the President of the United States during World War I Wilson
What was the Fourteen Points The President’s plan to eliminate the causes of war
What were the key ideas of the Fourteen Points Self-determination, Freedom of the Seas, League of Nations and the Mandate System
What peace treaty ended World War I Treaty of Versailles
Where was the Treaty of Versailles signed In a boxcar in Versailles, France
What was the outcome of the Treaty of Versailles League of Nations formed, national boundaries were redrawn, creating many new nations.
Why didn’t the United States join the League of Nations Did not want U.S. foreign policy to be decided by an international organization and the Senate would not approve the Treaty
List the causes of the Great Depression. Overproduction of goods, people were using borrowed money to buy stocks, protective tariffs that limited imported goods
What were some major impacts of the Great Depression Unemployment, homelessness, bank closings, farm foreclosures
What was the New Deal A program that created many agencies to help people during the Great Depression
What President introduced the New Deal FDR
What was the purpose of the WPA (Works Progress Administration) Provided immediate direct payment to people for immediate.
What was the purpose of the AAA (Agricultural Adjustment) Recovery programs were designed to bring the nation out of depression over time
What was the purpose of the FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation) Reform measures corrected unsound banking and investment practices
What is considered the starting point of World War II Hitler invades Poland in 1939
Though the United States stayed neutral during the first two years of the war which country did they continuously aid Great Britain
How did the United States provide aid to England War supplies and old naval warships
What did England give the United States in return Military bases in Bermuda and the Caribbean
What was the Lend-Lease Act Gave the President authority to sell or lend equipment to countries to defend themselves against the Axis Powers.
Who was responsible for the bombing of Pearl Harbor Japanese
When was Pearl Harbor attacked December 7, 1941
What was the importance of the attack on Pearl Harbor Much of the American Pacific fleet was destroyed. FDR asked Congress to declare war on Japan
What was America’s overall strategy in World War II Defeat Hitler first
What was America’s policy in Asia Island hopping; seizing islands closer and closer to Japan and using them as air bases to attack Japan
What was the Axis strategy in World War II Germany hoped to quickly defeat the Soviet Union, gain control of Soviet oil fields, and force Britain out of the war through a bombing campaign and submarine warfare
Where was the Battle of El Alamein fought North Africa
What was the importance of the Battle of El Alamein German forces threatened to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal.
What was the importance of the German defeat at El Alamein Prevented Hitler from gaining access to Middle Eastern oil supplies and potentially attacking the Soviet Union from the south.
Where was the Battle of Stalingrad fought Russia
What was the importance of the Battle of Stalingrad Hundred of thousands of German soldier were killed or captured in a months long siege of the Russian city.
Where was the Battle of Normandy fought France
What was the importance of the Battle of Normandy American and allied troops landed in German occupied France
When was D-Day June 6, 1944
Where was D-Day Normandy, France
Who led American troops in the invasion of Normandy Eisenhower
What was the importance of D-Day Liberation of Western Europe from Hitler
Where was the Battle of Midway Pacific
Why was the Battle of Midway important American naval forces defeated a much larger Japanese force as it prepared to seize Midway Island.
What was the importance of the American victory at Midway Hawaii was no longer threatened by Japanese occupation
Where were the Battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa Islands in the Pacific
What was the importance of invasion of Iwo Jima and Okinawa American forces were closer than ever to Japan. There was fierce fighting by both sides. Japanese soldiers and civilians committed suicide rather than surrender.
Which US President ordered the use of the atomic bomb President Truman
What two cities were ordered to be bombed Nagasaki and Hiroshima
How did African Americans participate in the Second World War Generally served in segregated military units and were assigned to non-combat roles.
Who were the Tuskegee Airmen Group of African-American pilots who served in Europe with distinction
Who were the Nisei regiments All Asian-American troops that earned a high number of decorations in World War II
What Native American language was used to pass encoded messages that were oral, not written Navajo
What was the purpose of the Geneva Convention Attempted to ensure the humane treatment of prisoners of war by establishing rules to be followed by all nations.
What was the Bataan Death March American POWs suffered brutal treatment by Japanese after surrender of the Philippines
How were POWs treated in Europe Close to the rules of the Geneva Convention
What is Genocide The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious or cultural group.
What was the “Final Solution” Germany’s decision to exterminate all Jews
Which groups were most affected by the Holocaust Jews, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies and “Undesirables” (homosexuals, mentally ill and political dissidents)
What happened at the Nuremberg Trials Nazi leaders (political and military) were convicted of war crimes
What was the purpose of rationing during WWII To maintain supply of essential products to the war effort
What were war bonds and income tax used for Financing the war
How were pre-war factories changed to help with the war effort Car manufacturing became tank manufacturing, etc
Who entered the work force when men went off to war Women and minorities
What was the draft Forced young men to go to war
How did women contribute to America’s effort during WWII Women began working in factories Rosie the Riveter
What type of military roles did women serve in Non-combat
What was the Japanese internment Imprisonment of Asian Americans (particularly Japanese Americans) during World War II.
Why were the Japanese put in internment camps Because Americans believed they were spies and aiding the enemy.
Where were most Japanese internment camps West Coast
How did the media assist the war effort Strict censorship of reporting of the war was maintained by the government
How was public morale kept up during the war Ad campaigns and propaganda posters
How did the entertainment industry help aid the war effort Production of movies, plays and shows boosted moral and patriotic support for the war effort.
At the end of WW II where were Soviet forces located Occupying most of Eastern and Central Europe and the eastern portion of Germany
How was Germany partitioned after the War East Germany and West Germany
What was West Germany like after the war Became a democratic and resumed self-government after a few years of American, French and British occupation.
What was East Germany like after the war Remained under the domination of the Soviet Union and did not adopt democratic institutions.
What happened in Japan after their defeat Japan was occupied by American forces. It soon adopted a democratic form of government, resumed self-government and became a strong ally of the United States.
What was the Marshall Plan Economic plan to provide financial aid to rebuild European economies and prevent the spread of communism
When was the United Nations formed At the end of WWII
What was the purpose of the United Nations To create a body for the nations of the world to try to prevent future global wars.
How long did the Cold War last From the end of World War II until the fall of the Berlin Wall
What was the Cold War An ideological battle between the Communist Soviets and the Democratic Americans
What was the guiding principle of American foreign policy throughout the Cold War Containment of Communism
What is NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Why was NATO formed As a defensive alliance among the US and Western European countries to prevent Soviet expansion.
The Soviet takeover of China caused what Americans to fear the spread of communism
What was the arms race A competition between the US and Soviets for military superiority
What is massive retaliation Used to deter an enemy from striking. It states that you will retaliate with much greater force than used in the initial attack.
How did the Cold War affect Americans Constant fear of communism and the threat of nuclear war.
What precautions did Americans take during the Cold War Built bomb shelters, and American schools regularly held drills to train students what to do in case of a nuclear attack
Why are Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg famous for Spying for the Soviets
Who was Senator Joe McCarthy U.S. Senator who recklessly accused many American government officials and citizens of being communist based on flimsy or no evidence.
What is McCarthyism Making of false accusations based on rumors or guilt by association.
Why did American get involved in the Korean War To contain communism
How did the Korean War start Communist North Korea invaded South Korea.
What was the American involvement in the Korean War They jumped to the aid of South Korea, Communist China came to the aid of North Korea.
What was the result of the Korean War South Korea was free of communist occupation
Why did America get involved in the Vietnam War To contain communism
What is the background of the Vietnam War North Vietnam was communist and from the 1950s to early 1960s the communist government tried to force a communist government on South Vietnam
The American military buildup in Vietnam began under which President Kennedy
What year was Kennedy assassinated 1963
Who became President after Kennedy Lyndon Johnson
During which decade did the scale of combat increase in Vietnam 1960s
Most opposition to the Vietnam War took place where College campuses
Who became President when Johnson decided not to run for re-election Nixon
What is the term for the withdrawing of American troops and replacing them with South Vietnamese forces while maintaining military aid to the South Vietnamese Vietnamization
Why did Vietnamization fail Because South Vietnam were unable to to resist invasion by the Soviet-supplied North Vietnamese Army
Why was President Nixon forced to leave the office Watergate Scandal
What was the result of the Vietnam War In 1975, both North and South Vietnam were merged under communist control.
Who led the communist revolution in Cuba Fidel Castro
What was the Bay of Pigs An unsuccessful attempt by armed Cuban exiles, funded by the US, to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro
What move by the Soviets instigated the Cuban Missile Crisis The stationing of missile aimed at the US in Cuba.
What was the Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy ordered the Soviets to remove the missiles and for several days in 1962 the world was on the brink of nuclear war.
Who is famous for the statement, “pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and success of liberty” JFK
Who made the famous statement, “ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country” JFK
How did American military forces defend freedom during the Cold War They served in wars that were not popular and many died or were wounded. American ideals ultimately won out.
What war was Kennedy a veteran of WW II
When and where was Kennedy assassinated Dallas, Texas 1963
How did the American public treat Vietnam Veterans Coldness and hostility.
What led to the collapse of the Soviet Union Increasing military expenses, rising nationalism in Soviet republics, economic inefficiency, and fast-paced reforms
Who has the policy of “Glasnost” and “Perestroika” Gorbachev
Who is famous for saying, “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall” Reagan
What role did Reagan play in the collapse of the Soviet Union Increased military and economic pressure
What was the significance of Brown vs. Board of Education Forced the desegregation of schools
What role did Thurgood Marshall play in Brown vs. Board of Education Member of the Legal Defense Team for the NAACP
Who was Oliver Hill Led the Legal Defense Team for the NAACP in Virginia during Brown vs. Board of Education
What was the response to desegregation in Virginia Massive resistance, closing of schools, establishment of private academies and “white flight” from urban school districts
What inspired the 1963 March on Washington Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s “I have a dream” speech
Who gave the “I Have a Dream” Speech Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
What is the importance of the 1963 March on Washington Helped influence public opinion to support civil rights legislation. It also demonstrated the power of non-violent protests.
What was the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Act prohibited discrimination based on race, religion, national origin and gender
What desegregated public accommodations, such as bathrooms Civil Rights Act of 1964
Which President played an important role in the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Johnson
What was the importance of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 Outlawed literacy tests
What were the results of Voting Rights Act of 1965 An increase in African American voters
What is the NAACP An organization that challenged segregation in the courts. National Association for the Advancement of Colored Persons
What ways have women altered the traditional world of work Working mothers, non-traditional jobs, and large percentage of the work force.
What are some issues for working women Need for affordable day care, equitable pay, glass ceiling and “pink collar” ghetto
What factors have drawn immigrants to the United States Religious freedom, political freedom, and economic opportunity
What are the effects of immigration on the United States Bilingual education, ESL courses
What are some contributions immigrants have made Popularity of ethnic food, music and the arts
Which President pledged support for the Space Program Kennedy
Who was the first American to orbit the Earth John Glenn
Who was the first astronaut to step on the moon Neil Armstrong
Who created the vaccine for Polio Dr. Jonas Salk
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