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100 flash cards

QuestionAnswer
1. What are the 5 fundamental political principles of government? 1. limited government 2. checks and balances 3.separation of powers 4.popular sovereignty 5. Federalism
2. What does “consent of the governed” mean? A condition urged by many as a requirement for legitimate government : that the authority of a government should depend on the consent of the people
3. What does “limited government” mean? A political system in which legalized force is restricted through delegated and enumerated powers.
4. What does “democracy” mean? rule by the people
5. What does “representative government” mean? people elect officials to represent them
6. What does “rule of law” mean? the restriction of the arbitrary exercise of power by subordinating it to well-defined and established laws
7. Which early American document guaranteed the rights of Englishmen to colonists? Virginia Company of London
8. What document was written by George Mason and served as a model/example for the U.S. Bill of Rights? Virginia Declaration of rights
9. What document by Thomas Jefferson and served as a model for the First Amendment’s freedom of religion? Virginia Statue for religious freedom
10. Why is the Declaration of Independence important? Stated reason for the United States want independence from Great Britain
11. What was the first plan of government for the United States and why did it fail? Articles of confederation failed because it created a weak, central government and no power to tax citizens
12. What is the Preamble and what does it do explains the reasons that the constitution was written and the purpose of the united states government
13. What is the written plan of government for the United States? Articles of confederation
14. What is federalsim the federal principle or system of government
15. What are the powers set aside for the states called? Reserved powers
16. what happens if a u.s law conflicts with a state law The state law is declared void. States cannot pass a law that conflicts with a Federal Law or the US Constitution. The law could also be illegal based on the state's constitution.
17. What are implied powers? power that is not specifically authorized in writing, but is assumed because of similar powers which have already been granted in writing.
18. What are powers the federal or state governments may NOT have? conduct foreign policy, regulate commerce, provide for the common defense
19. What are powers given specifically to Congress in the Constitution called? implied powers
20. What are the 3 levels of federal courts? legislative, executive, and judicial
21. What are the 4 levels of state courts? district, appellate,circuit, supreme
22. What is the process for bringing a civil and criminal case to trial? due process
23. What group makes laws for Virginia? Virginia General Assembly
25. What is a veto? a constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a law-making body.
26. What is the role of a lobbyist? persuade organizations and governement
27. What does the executive branch include? president, vice president
28. What is due process and where is it mentioned in the U.S. Constitution? process of briniging a case to trial mentioned in the 5th and 14th amendment
29. What is the legislative branch of the local government? general assembly State Legislature- state senate and state house of representatives
30. What positions does the VA Constitution require local governments to elect? governor
31. What is the role of the media in elections? identify canidates
32. What are the primary responsibilities of the national government versus the state? national government-conducts foreign policy, regulates commerce, and provides for the common defense state- Promotes public health, safety, and welfare
33. Describe the national legislative branch. Makes the laws of the nation • Approves the annual budget • Confirms presidential appointments • Raises revenue through taxes and other levies • Regulates interstate and foreign trade • Declares war
34. How does the executive branch influence policymaking? Proposing legislation in an annual speech to Congress (State of the Union Address) • Appealing directly to the people • Approving or vetoing legislation • Appointing officials who carry out the laws Cabinet departments, agencies, and regulatory group
35. What is judicial review? review by the US Supreme Court of the constitutional validity of a legislative act.
36. Which Supreme Court case established the idea of judicial review? US supreme court
37. Describe the system of checks and balances. Give examples Each of the three branches of the national government limits the exercise of power by the other two branches.The legislative branch Elected officials in Congress write laws and take action in response to problems or issues. Individuals and interest gro
38. What are the qualifications to vote? A U.S. citizen. At least 18 years old by the general election. A resident of your precinct at least 30 days prior to Election Day.
39. What factors determine who is more likely to vote? age,income,education
40. What are PACs and what do they do? political action commitees raising and spending money to elect and defeat candidates.
41. What are the functions of political parties? Recruiting and nominating candidates Educating the electorate about campaign issues Helping candidates win elections Monitoring actions of officeholders
42. How do third parties differ from the major parties? Introduce new ideas and/or press for a particular issue Often revolve around a political personality (e.g., Theodore Roosevelt
43. What are the major political parties and how are they different from each other? Stated in party platforms and reflected in campaigning
44. How has the high cost of getting elected changed campaigning for public office? require candidates to conduct extensive fundraising activities limit opportunities to run for public office give an advantage to wealthy individuals who run for office encourage the development of political action committees (PACs) give issue-or
45.Explain how the electoral college works. The candidate who receives a majority of electoral votes (270) wins the Presidency. The number 538 is the sum of the nation's 435 Representatives, 100 Senators, and 3 electors given to the District of Columbia.
46. What are magistrates? a civil officer or lay judge who administers the law, especially one who conducts a court that deals with minor offenses and holds preliminary hearings for more serious ones.
47. What is the difference between original and appellate jurisdiction? This means the court hears an appeal from a court of original jurisdiction. The appeals court uses appellate jurisdiction to review a lower court's decision. Just keep in mind that the appellate court will not hear the entire case. It is not a new trial.
48. Who heads the executive branch at each of the 3 levels of government? governor, board of supervisors, president
49. Who nominates and confirms Supreme Court justices? president
50. What did Brown v. Board of Education say? separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
51. What is our national legislature called? A state legislature
52. What does bicameral mean? (of a legislative body) having two branches or chambers.
53. None of the 3 branches of government is stronger than one another due to the system of __________. checks and balances
54. What are the two houses of Congress called/ the Senate and the House of Representatives.
55. How is representation determined in the House of Representatives? determined by dividing the population of each Territory by the quota determined for the States.
56. What are the roles of the President and Governor? execute the law of the land
57. What is the name of the President’s annual speech to Congress? State of the Union Address
58. What are the 3 branches of government and what do they do? executive, legislative, judicial.The executive branch • Headed by the president of the United States, the chief executive officer of the nation • Executes the laws of the land legislative branch • Consists of the Congress, a bicameral legislature con
59. What are the units of local government? counties, towns, and cities
60. What is the difference between civil and criminal law? A civil case involves individuals in a dispute and generally ends in monetary reward. Criminal cases are considered crimes against society and usually end in jail or prison time.
61. Which courts have jury trials? circuit courts
62. What freedoms are guaranteed by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution? speech, religion press,etc...
63. How are amendments added to the U.S. Constitution? The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments
64. How can the Constitution of Virginia be amended? amending the constitution. The Virginia Constitution can be amended via two different paths: 1. Through a legislatively-referred constitutional amendment as established in Section 1 of Article XII.
65. How does an individual become a U.S. citizen? By birth By naturalization
66. What are the steps involved in naturalization? demonstrate knowledge of American history and principles and the ability to read, speak, and write words in ordinary usage in the English language.
67. What are the duties of citizenship? Obey laws Pay taxes Serve in the armed forces, if called Serve on a jury or as a witness in court, when summoned
68. What is your #1 civic responsibility? What are some other responsibilities of citizens? Keep informed regarding current issues. others are Register and vote Hold elective office Communicate with government officials to influence government actions Serve in voluntary, appointed government positions Participate in political campaign
69. How do citizens demonstrate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life? Trustworthiness and honesty Courtesy and respect for the rights of others Responsibility, accountability, and self-reliance Respect for the law Patriotism Participation in the school and/or local community Participation in elections as an informed
70. What does “separation of powers” mean? an act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
71. Which officials are locally elected? U.S. Mayors. County Executives. . Other Local Government Officials.
72. Which powers do local governments exercise? legislative, executive, and judicial powers.
73. How do localities enact ordinances? An elected board of supervisors is the local legislative body in counties and is responsible for passing laws (ordinances) for the county. An elected council is the local legislative body in independent cities and incorporated towns.
74. How do individuals and interest groups influence public policy? by gathering American citizens together with similar concerns and presenting those concerns to officials.
75. Which international issues would require local government officials to act? Public health concerns in the event of a pandemic • Public safety in the event of an act of terrorism • Economic development policies in response to the emerging global economy • Policies to protect the environment
76. What are the 3 basic economic questions all societies must answer? What goods and services should be produced? How should the goods and services be produced? Who should get the goods and services?
77. What does “scarcity” mean? the state of being scarce or in short supply; shortage.
78. Name and describe the 4 major economic systems. Free market economy • Private ownership of property/resources • Profit motive • Competition • Consumer sovereignty Command economy • Central ownership (usually by government) of property/resources • Centrally-planned economy
79. What type of economy does the United States have? mixed economy
80. What are the 5 essential characteristics of the United States economy? Markets Private property Profit Competition Consumer sovereignty
81. Describe what “choice” and “opportunity cost” mean in the U.S. economy. selection of an item or action from a set of possible alternatives. Opportunity cost is what is given up when a choice is made
82. Define “price” and explain how it is determined in the U.S. economy. Price is the amount of money exchanged for a good or service. Interaction of supply and demand determines price. Price determines who acquires goods and services
83. Name and explain the 4 resources or factors of production. Demand is the amount of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at a certain price. Supply is the amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to sell at a certain price Production is the combining of human, na
84. Define incentives Incentives are things that incite or motivate. Incentives are used to change economic behavior.
85. Define supply and demand. interaction of supply and demand determines price.
86. Describe production and consumption Production is the combining of human, natural, capital, and entrepreneurship resources to make goods or provide services. Consumption is the using of goods and services.
87. List and describe the 3 basic types of business ownership in the U.S. Sole Proprietorships-one person owning and operating a business Partnerships- legal business with two or more parties Corporations-legal entity with authority to act/have liability separate from owners
88.How do individuals/households, businesses/producers and the government interact in the U.S. economy? Individual and business saving and investment provide financial capital that can be borrowed for business expansion and increased consumption.
89.What are private financial institutions and what do they do? Private financial institutions act as intermediaries between savers and borrowers that include households and business investor
90. What is the role of the Federal Reserve System? The Federal Reserve System is the central bank of the United States
91. What is the role of the U.S. government in protecting consumer rights and property rights? The United States government passes laws and creates agencies to protect consumer rights and property rights.
92. Which amendment gave the government the authority to tax personal incomes of citizens? 16th
93. How do financial institutions encourage saving and investing? Private financial institutions act as intermediaries between savers and borrowers.
94. What are public goods and services? provided by government • Provide benefits to many simultaneously • Would not likely be available if individuals had to provide them • Include such things as interstate highways, postal service, and national defense
95. How do governments produce public goods and services? regulates banks to ensure the soundness of the banking system and the safety of deposits • manages the amount of money in the economy to try to keep inflation low and stable • acts as the federal government’s bank.
96. How does the government influence economic activity? Government tax increases reduce the funds available for individual and business spending; tax decreases increase funds for individual Increased government borrowing reduces funds available for borrowing by individuals and businesses;
97. How does the United States government promote and regulate competition? Engaging in global trade • Supporting business start-ups
98. Name and describe 3 executive branch government agencies that regulate businesses. FCC (Federal Communications Commission) • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) • FTC (Federal Trade Commission
99.Why do Virginia and the United States trade with other nations? Virginia and the United States pursue international trade in order to increase wealth.
100. What is the impact of technological innovation on world trade? Innovations in technology (e.g., the Internet) contribute to the global flow of information, capital, goods, and services. The use of such technology also lowers the cost of production
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