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S.S. SOL Review

QuestionAnswer
1. What are the five fundamental principals of government? Consent of the governed, democracy, limited government, representative government, and rule of law.
2. What does 'consent of the governed' mean? The only legitimate source of a government's power.
3. What does 'limited government' mean? The government should not have absolute power.
4. What does 'democracy' mean? A government in which people hold the ultimate power to make the laws.
5. What does 'representative government' mean? A government where the people elect representatives to make laws on their behalf. AKA, indirect democracy.
6. What does 'rule of law' mean? The principle that nobody, including the government itself, is above the law.
7. Which early American document guaranteed the same rights as Englishman to the Colonists? The Virginia Charters of London.
8. What document was written by George Madison and served as a model for the U.S. Bill of Rights? The Virginia Declaration of Rights.
9. What document was written by Thomas Jefferson and served as a model for the First Amendment’s freedom of religion? The Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom.
10. Why is the Declaration of Independence important? * Written by Thomas Jefferson * Took away consent of the governed * Stated unalienable rights of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" * Said all men are created equal * Not a plan of government
11. What was the first plan of government for the United States and why did it fail? Gave states sovereignty and created a weak central government.
12. What is the preamble and what does it do? Introduction to the Constitution, "We the People", States the purposes/goals of the government.
13. What is the written plan of government for the United States? The Constitution.
14. What is Federalism? The division of power between the state and federal governments.
15. What are the powers set aside for the states called? Reserved powers.
16. What happens if a U.S. law conflicts with a state law? The U.S. law overrides the state law.
17. What are implied powers? Powers not expressly listed, but assumed to exist to carry out expressed powers. Also powers suggested by the necessary and proper clause of the US Constitution. Used to carry out delegated/expressed powers.
18. What are powers the federal or state governments may NOT have? Denied powers such as slavery or the inability to take away rights/due process.
19. What are powers given specifically to Congress in the Constitution called? Expressed powers.
20. What are the three levels of federal courts? US Supreme Court, US District Court, and US Circuit Court.
21. What are the four levels of state courts? * VA Supreme Court * Va Court of Appeals * Circuit Court - Jury, felonies * General District Court (misdemeanors)
22. . What is the process for bringing a civil and criminal case to trial? 1. Arrest 2. Bail 3. Arraignment 4. Trial
23. What group makes laws for Virginia? The General Assembly.
24. What is the lawmaking process? How does a bill become a law? 1. Introduce a bill by a senator or representative. 2. Work in committees. 3. Debate bill on floor of each house. 4. Voting on the bill in each house. 5. Sending the bill to the president to sign into law.
25. What is a veto? A president's refusal to sign a bill into law.
26. What is the role of a lobbyist? To work to influence a president to address a particular issue in the way they desire.
27. What does the executive branch include? * President, VP, cabinet, 15 executive departments, regulatory commissions and agencies (e.x., agencies).
28. What is due process and where is it mentioned in the U.S. Constitution? It is the guaranteeing of rights to those accused of crimes and is mentioned in amendments five and fourteen.
29. What is the legislative branch of the local government? County - Board of Supervisors City & Town - Council
30. What positions does the VA Constitution require local governments to elect? * Treasurer * Clerk of Court * Sheriff * Comissioner of Revenue
31. What is the role of the media in elections? * Identifying candidates * Emphasizing selected issues * Publishing editorials, creating political cartoons, and op-ed pieces * Broadcasting different points of view
32. What are the primary responsibilities of the national government versus the state? NATIONAL: * Conduct foreign policy * Regulate commerce * Provide for the common defense STATE: * Promotes public health, safety, and welfare.
33. Describe the national legislative branch. Consists of Congress, a bicameral structure made up of The House of Representatives (435, based on state population) and the Senate (100 members, two per state).
34. How does the executive branch influence policymaking? * Proposing legislation through the State of the Union Address. * Appealing directly to the people. * Appointing officials who carry out the laws.
35. What is judicial review? The power of the judicial branch to check the executive and legislative branch. It is the power to examine and determine if laws, legal actions, or cases are constitutional or that full rights were given.
36. Which Supreme Court case established the idea of judicial review? Marbury vs. Madison
37. Describe the system of checks and balances. Give examples. Checks and balances is the relationship between the three national branches of government. Ex. 1: Congress sends a law to the president to be signed and he vetoes it. The bill doesn't become a law, so the president checked the legislative branch.
38. What are the qualifications to vote? You must be 18 or older and a legal US state citizen, as well as a citizen of that particular state.
39. What factors determine who is more likely to vote? * Income * Age * Education
40. What are PACs and what do they do? Committees that will give money to support a candidate if he/she supports an ideal they wish to be addressed.
41. What are the functions of political parties? * Recruiting and nominating candidates * Educating the electorate about campaign issues * Helping candidates win elections * Monitoring actions of officeholders
42. How do third parties differ from the major parties? They are mostly concerned with a particular issue.
43. What are the major political parties and how are they different from each other? Republican and Democratic are the two political parties. Republicans are very conservative. Democratics are very liberal; i.e., Republicans are against gay marriage because it is against traditions and Democratics are fine with it because it is liberating
44. How has the high cost of getting elected changed campaigning for public office? * Require candidates to conduct extensive fundraising activities * Limit opportunities to run for public office * Give an advantage to the wealthy who run for office * Encourage the development of PACs * Give special interest groups more influence
45. Explain how the electoral college works. * A slate of electors for each state is chosen by popular vote. * Most states have a winner-take-all system. * The electors meet to vote for president and vice president.
46. What are magistrates? Magistrates deliver subpoenas, search warrants, and summons, as well as sets bail.
47. What is the difference between original and appellate jurisdiction? Original jurisdiction is the first court to hear the case, and appellate means the court can only hear cases that are appealed to it.
48. Who heads the executive branch at each of the 3 levels of government? The president.
49. Who nominates and confirms Supreme Court justices? The president nominates justices and Congress approves/denie them.
50. What did Brown v. Board of Education say? Said that separate facilities were indeed not equal, and ended school segregation between whites and blacks.
51. What is our national legislature called? Congress.
52. What does bicameral mean? Consisting of two parts.
53. None of the 3 branches of government is stronger than one another due to the system of __________. Check and balances.
54. What are the two houses of Congress called? House of Representatives and the Senate.
55. How is representation determined in the House of Representatives? Through state population.
56. What are the roles of the President and Governor? * Chief of state (both) * Chief executive (president) * Chief legislator (both) * Commander in Chief (both) * Chief Diplomat (president) * Chief of party (both) * Chief citizen (president) * Chief administrator (governor)
57. What is the name of the President’s annual speech to Congress? State of the Union Address.
58. What are the 3 branches of government and what do they do? Executive: Executes the laws of the land. Legislative: Makes the laws. Judicial: Interpret the laws.
59. What are the units of local government? Counties, towns, and cities.
60. What is the difference between civil and criminal law? Criminal: Judge or jury decides if a person is guilty of a crime. Civil: Settles a dispute between two parties.
61. Which courts have jury trials? US District Court and Circuit Court.
62. What freedoms are guaranteed by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution? 1. Press 2. Assembly 3. Petition 4. Religion 5. Speech
63. How are amendments added to the U.S. Constitution? * Proposal by Congress or convention * Ratification: by the states
64. How can the Constitution of Virginia be amended? * Proposal by General Assembly or convention * Ratification by voters of Virginia
65. How does an individual become a U.S. citizen? Through naturalization or being born in the United States/on US territory.
66. What are the steps involved in naturalization? * Demonstrate knowledge of US history and common values * Some ability to read, speak, and write in the English language
67. What are the duties of citizenship? * Obey laws * Pay taxes * Serve in the armed forces if drafted * When summoned, serve on a jury or as a witness in court
68. What is your #1 civic responsibility? What are some other responsibilities of citizens? Voting is the number one civic responsibility. Other responsibilities are: registering and voting * communicating with gov't officials * Voting * Staying informed * Respecting different views in a diverse society.
69. How do citizens demonstrate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life? By exercising actions of good citizenship, such as trustworthiness, courtesy, responsibility, obeying the law, patriotism, participation in local community, and voting.
70. What does “separation of powers” mean? The division of powers between the state and federal governments.
71. Which officials are locally elected? School board, town council, city council, and mayor.
72. Which powers do local governments exercise? * Enforce state and local laws * Promote public health * Protect public safety * Education * Protect the environment * Oversee land use * Levy and collect taxes.
73. How do localities enact ordinances? * Board of supervisors enacts ordinances for counties. * An elected council enacts ordinances in independent cities and incorporated towns.
74. How do individuals and interest groups influence public policy? Individuals: Participating, expressing opinions, joining interest groups Interest Groups: Lobbying, making political contributions, identifying issues.
75. Which international issues would require local government officials to act? Pandemic, terrorism, respond to emerging global economy, enact policies to protect the environment.
76. What are the 3 basic economic questions all societies must answer? * What will be produced? * Who will produce it? * For whom will it be produced?
77. What does “scarcity” mean? Rarity of a product due to high demand, but low supply.
78. Name and describe the 4 major economic systems. Mixed: Private ownership with little influence from the gov't. Free Market: No gov't influence, all privately owned. Command: An economy in which there is no private ownership. Traditional: An economy most work the same jobs there parents did.
79. What type of economy does the United States have? Mixed Economy.
80. What are the 5 essential characteristics of the United States economy? Mixed economy, limited government, private property, profit, and competition.
81. Describe what “choice” and “opportunity cost” mean in the U.S. economy. A choice is a decision made between two products, and opportunity cost is what is lost when a choice is made to buy one of the two products.
82. Define “price” and explain how it is determined in the U.S. economy. The amount of currency paid for a good or service.
83. Name and explain the 4 resources or factors of production. Resources: * Natural: * Capital: * Human-labor: * Entrepreneurial:
84. Define incentives. Things that encourage a consumer to buy a particular product; i.e., a $1 coupon for any Skylanders toy that comes from McDonald's happy meals is an incentive to buy more Skylanders.
85. Define supply and demand. Supply: The amount of a product/service available to be consumed. Demand: The amount of consumers who desire to own/use the product/service.
86. Describe production and consumption. Production: The combining of resources to produce a product/service. Consumption: The act of using a product/service.
87. List and describe the 3 basic types of business ownership in the U.S. Types of Business * Sole proprietorship * Partnerships * Corporations
88. How do individuals/households, businesses/producers and the government interact in the U.S. economy? Resources, goods and services, and money flow continuously through households, businesses, and markets in the US.
89. What are private financial institutions and what do they do? Intermediaries between savers and borrowers.
90. What is the role of the Federal Reserve System? Performs as the nation's central bank.
91. What is the role of the U.S. government in protecting consumer rights and property rights? The gov't protects consumer/property rights. * Private ownership, protected by contracts * Agencies establish guidelines to protect rights * Consumers may take legal action against violations of these rights.
92. Which amendment gave the government the authority to tax personal incomes of citizens? The Sixteenth Amendment.
93. How do financial institutions encourage saving and investing? Paying interest on deposits.
94. What are public goods and services? Goods and services available to everyone.
95. How do governments produce public goods and services? Using tax money.
96. How does the government influence economic activity? By lowering or raising taxes, which changes the demand and therefore the amount of spending and money in circulation.
97. How does the United States government promote and regulate competition? To promote competition, the government encourages new businesses, and regulates it by using laws such as the ones against monopolies.
98. Name and describe 3 executive branch government agencies that regulate businesses. FCC: Federal Communications Commission. Censors TV and radio and other electronical things. EPA: Environment Protection Agency. Helps with environmental protection. FTC: Federal Trades Commissions. Protects consumer rights.
99. Why do Virginia and the United States trade with other nations? * Get goods/services that cannot be made efficiently at the home country. * Buy goods and services at a lower cost/opportunity cost. * Sell goods/services to other countrie * Create jobs
100. What is the impact of technological innovation on world trade? Technological advancement decreases the cost for world trade.
Created by: 3107726