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# MCAT Physics Ch. 12

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Measurements Of Central Tendency | Provide a single value representation for the middle of a group of data |

Arithmetic Mean / Average | Measure of central tendency that equally weighs all values. |

Median | Value that lies in the middle of the data set. 50% of data points are above and below the median. |

Mode | Data point that appears most often. There may be multiple (or zero) modes in a data set. |

Normal Distribution Is: | Symmetrical. |

Standard Normal Distribution | Normal distribution with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one. |

Skewed Distributions | Have differences in their mean, median, and mode. |

The Skew Direction is The Direction Of The: | Tail of the distribution |

Bimodal Distributions Have: | Multiple peaks, although not necessarily multiple modes. |

Range | Difference between the largest and smallest values in a data set. |

Interquartile Range | Difference between the value of the third quartile and first quartile. This can be used to determine outliers. |

Standard Deviation | Measurement of variability about the mean. This can be used to determine outliers. |

Outliers May Be A Result Of: | True population variability, measurement error, or non-normal distribution |

Probability Of Independent Events: | Does not change based on the outcomes of other events. |

Probability Of A Dependent Event: | Changes depending on the outcomes of other events. |

Mutually Exclusive Outcomes: | Cannot occur simultaneously. |

Hypothesis Tests: | Use a known distribution to determine whether a hypothesis of no difference (null hypothesis) can be rejected |

Comparison Of A P-Value To The Selected Signficance Level (alpha): | Determines whether data is statistically significant |

Confidence Intervals | Range of values about a sample mean that are used to estimate the population mean. 95% is common. |

Pie Charts And Bar Charts Are used To Compare: | Categorical data |

Histograms And Box Plots Are Used To: | Compare numerical data |

Linear, Semilog, And Log-log Plots Can Be Distinguished By: | Their axes |

Correlation And Causation Are Separate Concepts Linked By: | Hill's criteria |

Eq. 12.1: Arithmetic Mean | xi to xn = values of all of the data points in the set. n = number of data points in the set. |

Eq. 12.2: Median Position | median position = (n + 1) / 2. n = number of data values. |

Eq. 12.3: Range | Range = xmax - xmin. xmax and xmin are the largest and smallest numbers in a dataset. |

Eq. 12.4: Interquartile Range | IQR = Q3 - Q1. Q3 and Q1 = third and fourth quartile values. |

Eq. 12.5: Standard Deviation | Sigma = standard deviation. xi to xn = values of all data points in the set. x(line above) = mean. n = number of data points in the set. |

Eq. 12.6: Probability Of Two Independent Events Co-occurring | Exp: The probability of two or more events occurring at the same time is the product of their probabilities alone. |

Eq. 12.7: Probability Of At Least One Event Occurring | Exp: Probability of at least one or two events occurring is equal to the sum of their initial probabilities, minus the probability that they will both occur. |

Eq. 12.8 Slope |