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# MCAT Physics Ch. 12

TermDefinition
Measurements Of Central Tendency Provide a single value representation for the middle of a group of data
Arithmetic Mean / Average Measure of central tendency that equally weighs all values.
Median Value that lies in the middle of the data set. 50% of data points are above and below the median.
Mode Data point that appears most often. There may be multiple (or zero) modes in a data set.
Normal Distribution Is: Symmetrical.
Standard Normal Distribution Normal distribution with a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one.
Skewed Distributions Have differences in their mean, median, and mode.
The Skew Direction is The Direction Of The: Tail of the distribution
Bimodal Distributions Have: Multiple peaks, although not necessarily multiple modes.
Range Difference between the largest and smallest values in a data set.
Interquartile Range Difference between the value of the third quartile and first quartile. This can be used to determine outliers.
Standard Deviation Measurement of variability about the mean. This can be used to determine outliers.
Outliers May Be A Result Of: True population variability, measurement error, or non-normal distribution
Probability Of Independent Events: Does not change based on the outcomes of other events.
Probability Of A Dependent Event: Changes depending on the outcomes of other events.
Mutually Exclusive Outcomes: Cannot occur simultaneously.
Hypothesis Tests: Use a known distribution to determine whether a hypothesis of no difference (null hypothesis) can be rejected
Comparison Of A P-Value To The Selected Signficance Level (alpha): Determines whether data is statistically significant
Confidence Intervals Range of values about a sample mean that are used to estimate the population mean. 95% is common.
Pie Charts And Bar Charts Are used To Compare: Categorical data
Histograms And Box Plots Are Used To: Compare numerical data
Linear, Semilog, And Log-log Plots Can Be Distinguished By: Their axes
Correlation And Causation Are Separate Concepts Linked By: Hill's criteria
Eq. 12.1: Arithmetic Mean xi to xn = values of all of the data points in the set. n = number of data points in the set.
Eq. 12.2: Median Position median position = (n + 1) / 2. n = number of data values.
Eq. 12.3: Range Range = xmax - xmin. xmax and xmin are the largest and smallest numbers in a dataset.
Eq. 12.4: Interquartile Range IQR = Q3 - Q1. Q3 and Q1 = third and fourth quartile values.
Eq. 12.5: Standard Deviation Sigma = standard deviation. xi to xn = values of all data points in the set. x(line above) = mean. n = number of data points in the set.
Eq. 12.6: Probability Of Two Independent Events Co-occurring Exp: The probability of two or more events occurring at the same time is the product of their probabilities alone.
Eq. 12.7: Probability Of At Least One Event Occurring Exp: Probability of at least one or two events occurring is equal to the sum of their initial probabilities, minus the probability that they will both occur.
Eq. 12.8 Slope
Created by: SamB91

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