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MCAT Physics Ch. 10

TermDefinition
Scientific Notation Method of writing numbers in a way that improves the ease of calculations
Scientific Notation Takes The Format: [significand] x 10^[exponent]
Significand Must Be Great Than Or Equal To: 1 and less than 10
Exponent Must Be An: Integer
Significant Figures Include: All nonzero digits and any trailing zeroes in a number with a decimal point.
For Addition And Subtraction, Reduce The Answer To Have: The same number of decimal places as the number with the fewest number of decimal places
For Multiplication And Division, Reduce The Answer To Have: The same number of significant digits as the number with the fewest number of significant digits
Entire Number Should Be Maintained Throughout Calculations To: Minimize rounding error
Exponents Notation for repeated multiplication. They can be manipulated mathematically when the bases are the same.
Logarithms Inverse of exponents and are subject to similar mathematical manipulations
Natural Logarithms Use base e (Euler's number) and can be converted into common logarithms which use base 10
Sine len opp / len hyp
Cosine Ratio of length of the side adjacent to an angle to the length of the hypotenuse
Tangent Ratio of the side opposite an angle to the side adjacent to it.
Inverse Trigonometric Functions Use the calculated value from a ratio of side lengths to calculate the angle of interest.
Direct Relationships As one variable increases, the other increases in proportion
Inverse Relationships As one variable increases, the other decreases in proportion.
Conversions Between Metric Prefixes Require: Multiplication or division by corresponding powers of ten
Conversions Between Units Of Different Scales Require: Multiplication or division and may require addition or subtraction.
Unit Analysis (Dimensional Analysis) Can determine the appropriate computation based on given information.
Eq. 10.1: Zero Exponent Identity X^0 = 1
Eq. 10.2: Multiplying-like Bases With Exponents X^A * X^B = X^(A+B)
Eq. 10.3: Dividing Like Bases With Exponents X^A / X^B = X^(A-B)
Created by: SamB91