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Histology-Endocrine

Histology-Endocrine-WVSOM Class of 2012

QuestionAnswer
which endocrine organ is the president? hypothalamus
which endocrine organ is the vice-president? pituitary
which part of the pituitary is anterior? adenohypophysis
what is another name for the adenohypophysis? pars distalis
what are the 3 cell types in the adenohypophysis? basophils, acidophils, chromophobes
which is smaller, basophils or acidophils? acidophils
what are the three basophilic cells? what do they secrete? where are they found? thyrotropes, corticotropes, gonadotropes; tsh, acth, fsh & lh; adenohypophysis
what are the two acidophilic cells? what do they secrete? where are they found? somatotropes and mammotrophs; growth hormone and prolactin; adenohypophysis
what does acth do? where does this have its effect? stimulates glucocorticoid synthesis; adrenal zona fasiculata and reticularis
what does tsh do? where does this have its effect? stimulates production of thyroid hormones; follicular cells
what does fsh do? where does this have its effect? stimulates follicle development and androgen-binding production in sertoli cells; ovaries and testes
what does lh do? where does this have its effect? stimulates steroidogenesis in ovarian follicles, corpus leuteum, and leydig cells (testosterone); ovary and testes
what are the support cells for the neurohypophysis? what cell provides these with materials to do so? pituicytes; herring bodies
what two hormones are produced in the neurohypophysis? what do these hormones do? adh and oxytocin; stimulates water resorbtion in the renal medulla; stimulates smooth muscle contraction (causes contractions and milk ejection)
what are the two cell types of the thyroid? follicular and parafollicular
which cells are also called c cells? what do they produce? parafollicular; calcitonin
what cells are also called principle or epithelial cells? what do they produce? what kind of epithelium? follicular; T3 and T4; simple cuboidal
what is the pink in the thyroid glands? inactive hormone (iodinated thyroglobulin)
what disorder is the result of circulating immunoglobulin that binds and perpetually activates the tsh receptor? hyperthyroidism (grave's disease)
what disease is the result of autoimmune destruction of thyroid? hypothyroidism (hasimoto's disease)
describe morphology of hashimoto's disease? infiltration of lymphs and plasma cells, may see germinal centers
what does calcitonin do? calcitonin suppresses bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast activity
thyroid produces more t3 or t4? which is more potent? t4; t3
t3 or t4, which is converted to the other in the liver? t4 converted to t3
where are parathyroid glands found and how many? on posterior thyroid; 4
what cells are in the parathyroid gland? what is their function? principle cells and oxyphil cells; secretes parathyroid hormone, which increases osteoclast activity; oxyphil cells is unknown
parathyroid principle cells are sometimes called what? chief cells
what does the zona glomerulosa secrete? what does it regulate? aldosterone (mineralocorticoids); blood pressure via salt resorbtion
what does the zona fasiculata secrete? what does it regulate? glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone); carbohydrate metabolism to raise blood glucose
what does the zona reticularis secrete? what does it regulate? androgens DHEA and androstenedione; sex hormones
what does the adrenal medulla secrete? norepinephrine and epinephrine
where is the pineal gland located? what is its function? near ventricles of brain; controls 24 hour cycles and hormonal levels, senses light and dark
what are the 3 cell types of the pancreas? what do they produce? what are their effects? alpha, beta, delta; glucagon, insulin, somatostatin; raise glucose levels, lower glucose levels; inhibit release of insulin and glucagon
where do enteroendocrine cells exist? in pits of GI glands
hypersecretion of cortisol leads to what disease? cushing's syndrome
hyposecretion of adrenal cortex leads to what disease? addison's disease
Created by: mhassan