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JAH--19 World War I

JAHKMLHS C19 World War I and Beyond

TermDefinition
Alsace-Lorraine This area was the focus of French hatred toward Germany which had taken the area from France in 1871.
militarism This ideology puts war and the use or threat of military force as the highest priority of a country to achieve its political goals. The term refers to a glorification of the army, navy, air force, marines, and like groups.
Schlieffen Plan This concept was Germany’s guide in the early stages of WWI. The concept called for a quick defeat of France followed by a movement of armies to face the Russians.
William II This Kaiser assured Austria-Hungary that Germany would honor the alliance pact between the two countries.
Western Front This area of fighting in World War I was the critical area since whoever won here would win the war.
casualty This term refers to the participants in a military action who are killed, wounded, or missing.
contraband This term usually refers any property that is illegal to produce or possess. This property may be smuggled goods that are imported into or exported from a country in violation of its laws and may be primarily of a military nature.
U-boat This type of vessel was used by Germany to attempt to blockade England, as well as to destroy merchant shipping.
Lusitania In 1915 the sinking of this vessel which was carrying weapons, as well as passengers, began to turn American opinion against the Germans.
Zimmermann note This telegram, intercepted by the British, encouraged Mexico to make war on the United States together with Germany.
Triple Alliance This partnership consisted of German, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
Triple Entente This alliance consisted of France, Britain, and Russia and was a response to the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy in the pre-WWI years.
Archduke Franz-Ferdinand This man was assassinated in Sarajevo. His death became the final reason for the outbreak of WWI.
Gavrilo Princip This man provided the spark that set off World War I by assassinating the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary.
trench warfare This is a type of fighting in which the opposing sides attack, counterattack, and defend from areas dug into the ground.
Sussex pledge This promise was made by Germany to warn ships that were about to be sunk and the allies would have to remove the blockade of German.
nationalism This term refers to a strong desire of one for independence from foreign domination or to a strong sense of loyalty or devotion to one’s own country.
“Over the top” This action occurred as soldiers left the safety of their trenches to attack enemy trenches.
Edith Cavell This nurse was executed by the Germans for treason because she assisted British prisoners of war in escaping.
No man’s land This term was used by soldiers to describe the ground, which was often lined with rows of barbed wire, between two opposing trenches.
mustard gas This new weapon of WWI caused the skin of victims to blister, the eyes to become very sore and victims to vomit, as well as causing internal and external bleeding and attacking the bronchial tubes, stripping off the mucous membrane.
Manfred von Richthofen This man known as the Red Baron shot down 80 allied planes before he was finally shot down and killed in 1918..
First Battle of the Marne This counterattack began on September 7, 1914, was fought along a battle front that stretched 125 miles, and pushed the Germans back 40 miles.
Central Powers This alliance consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire.
balance of power This term refers to an equal amount of strength sufficient to discourage or prevent one nation or party from imposing its will on or interfering with the interests of another nation.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk On March 3, 1918, this document was signed that established peace between the Bolsheviks in control of the Russian government and Germany.
National Defense Act of 1916 This legislation expanded the regular federal army from 90,000 to eventually 223,000, expanded the National Guard to 440,000, made provision for their training, and gave federal funds for summer training camps for civilians.
Naval Construction Act of 1916 This piece of legislation set out to create a U.S. Navy equal to Britain’s, the most powerful navy in the world. The bill authorized between $500 million and $600 million for a three-year navy expansion program.
Selective Service Act Passed on May 18, 1917, this legislation required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register to be drafted into the armed forces.
Bernard Baruch This man claimed, “No steel, copper, cement, rubber, or other basic materials could be used without our approval.” His agency determined what products industries would make, where they would go, and how much they would cost.
Committee on Public Information This group produced propaganda during the war, as well as provided speakers called “four minute men” to address crowds at public functions. They had to convince Americans that the war effort was a just cause.
George Creel This newspaper reporter, and political reformer, was selected by Wilson to head the CPI to “sell America.”
Great Migration This term refers to the movement of many African Americans from their homes in the South to the “Land of Hope” (the North).
Espionage Act This legislation provided penalties of 20 years imprisonment and fines up to $10,000 for those convicted of interfering with military recruitment. The law also authorized the Postmaster General to remove treasonable or seditious material from the mail.
conscientious objector This type of person resisted the draft because his moral or religious beliefs forbade fighting in wars.
War Industries Board This government agency had the task of ensuring that all resources were used not only to maximize war production but also to produce material for the home front.
Herbert Hoover This man headed the committee that designed “Wheatless Wednesdays” and “Porkless Thursdays.”
Sedition Act This legislation proscribed penalties for anyone who would utter, print, write, or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about any part of the government of the United States, including the Constitution and the military
Schenck v. United States In this case the Supreme Court ruled limits needed to be placed on free speech during wartime to ensure the country’s overall safety.
William McAdoo This man, Woodrow Wilson’s son-in-law, was placed in charge of the railroad system in the United States during WWI.
propaganda This term refers to the posters, newspaper stories, speeches, and other materials designed to influence people’s opinions.
National War Labor Board This government agency judged disputes between workers and management during WWI.
Revenue Acts These laws raised the lowest income tax rate from 1 % to 2 % and raised the top rate to 15 % on taxpayers with incomes above $2 million to help finance the war.
Liberty bonds These pieces of paper were a form of a loan to the government to help finance the war. They could be purchases by adults, as well as by children.
Fuel Administration Harry Garfield headed this portion of the government during the war which insured adequate resources for vehicles, for heating home, and for running factories.
convoy system This plan, presented by Admiral Sims, suggested that troop transport ships, as well as merchant ships, should be surrounded by destroyers and cruisers for protection.
Vladimir Lenin This man led the radical communists in a successful revolution against Czar Nicholas II.
John J. Pershing This man was the commander of the American forces in Europe.
Fourteen Points This plan of Wilson’s laid out steps for promoting openness, encouraging independence, and supporting freedom throughout the world.
self-determination This term describes the right of people to decide their own political status or form of government.
League of Nations This organization, which was the cornerstone of Wilson’s plan, would work to settle disputes, protect democracy, and prevent future wars.
Henry Cabot Lodge This man, the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, led the group that believed that part of the League of Nation’s charter was unconstitutional.
reparations This term refers to payments for damages and expenses caused by the war.
irreconcilables This group of senators believed that the U. S. should not get entangled in world politics or world organizations.
reservationists This group of senators believed that the wording of Article 10 of the treaty was too vague and demanded that it not contradict the power of Congress to declare war.
Treaty of Versailles This was the agreement that formally ended the war.
Alvin York This man became one of the greatest heroes of WWI when he captured 132 Germans.
Belleau Woods This battle was the first in which the AEF experienced the heavy casualties associated with the Great War, and was, as well, the defining moment of U.S. Marine Corps determination and dedication.
Chateau Thierry This battle was the second victory for the Americans in WWI. The AEF protected the bridges and then took part in a counter-attack against German forces that had crossed the Marne.
Big Four This group, consisting of heads of United States, England, France, and Italy, dominated the peace negotiations.
David Lloyd George This man, the British prime minister at the peace talks, insisted on protecting the existing colonial status quo and punishing Germany.
Georges Clemenceau This man, the French premier at the peace talks, wanted to make Germany pay dearly for what she had done to France.
Vittorio Orlando This man, the Italian premier, wanted the city of Fiume, as well as control of the Adriatic Coast.
mandates Under this system colonial territories of the defeated powers were distributed to the victorious allies to administer the government and affairs, under the general supervision of the League of Nations
dogfights This term referred to the new style of fighting that occurred between pilots and planes in WWI.
doughboy This nickname was given to any man America sent to France in the Great War, who fought to make the world safe for Democracy.
isolationism This ideology develops when one nation doesn’t want to be involved in the affairs of other nations.
Eddie Rickenbacker This man was America's most successful fighter pilot of the war. His notable attack upon no fewer than seven German aircraft on 25 September 1918, during which he shot down two, subsequently gained him the U.S. Medal of Honor (1930).
influenza In 1918 this deadly virus created a lethal epidemic that killed more than 22 million people worldwide.
inflation This term refers to the upward swing in the cost of most goods and services while the wagers of earners to purchase creep up more slowly.
Red Scare This term refers to the widespread fear of communist subversion, espionage, and sabotage that became prevalent after World War I.
Palmer raids These events involved mass arrests and deportation of radicals at the height of the post–World War I era red scare.
A. Mitchell Palmer This attorney general, nicknamed the “Fighting Quaker,” led the justice department in rounding up and arresting suspected alien radicals.
anarchist This type of person is a radical who desires the eradication of government in favor of a natural social order.
alien This term refers to a citizen of another country living in the United States.
Bolshevik This name refers to members of the wing of the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party led by Vladimir Ilich Lenin that seized control in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
deportation This term refers to the removing a non-citizen of a country from that country and sending him to another country.
Red Ark This was the nickname given to the Buford aboard which 249 “radicals” were deported on December 21, 1920.
Vanzetti This fish peddler was convicted of murdering a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard by a jury and judge who were prejudiced in some degree because this fish peddler was an Italian, an atheist, an anarchist, and a draft dodger.
Sacco This shoe-factory worker was convicted of murdering a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard by a jury and judge who were prejudiced in some degree because this shoe-factory worker was an Italian, an atheist, an anarchist, and a draft dodger.
creditor nation This term is applied to a country that is owed more money by other countries than it owes to other countries.
Warren G. Harding This man was tired of progressive reforms and foreign crusades. He called for a return to “normalcy.”
Veterans' Bureau In 1921, this government agency was created to operate hospitals and provide vocational rehabilitation for the disabled persons who had served in the military.
Created by: jim.haferman