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Path 2 Block 2 (2)

Path 2 Block 2 (2) NWHSU

The presence of excess fluid outside the vascular system in an organ (lungs) or in the interstial tissues (legs) is known as _______ and _____ ______ congestion. Edema and passive lung congestion
Edema and passive lung congestion occurs when teh hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the microcirculation increases as occurs in ____________ ________ _______ with resulting leg edema congestive heart failure
Acute pulmonary passive congestion may cause acute ______ ________, acute _______ ________ is an important cause. pulmonary edema myocardial infarction
Chronic pulmonary passive congestion is prolonged in time and results from chronic _____ ______ ______ ________. left ventricular heart failure
Preexisteant left sided heart failure is the most common cause (95% of all cases) of ___ ______ _______ ________. Caused by increased pressure in the pulmonary artery increasing the work load of the _______ ______. Right sided heart failure right ventrical
Right sided heart failure results in _______ pressure in the systemic veins with chronic _____ _______ of abdominal organs which are inflow organs to the right heart (liver, spleen, and kidney) also causes ascites and edema. Increased pressure chronic passive congestion
______ _______ is right sided heart failure occurring with a normal left heart. This is an unusual cause of right sided heart failure. Cor Pulmonale
_____ _____ results from primary disease in the lungs (emphysema), pulmonary vessels or chest cavity deformity raising the pressure in the pulmonary artery and increasing the work load of the _______ ventricles. Cor pulmoonale right ventricles
_____ to ______ shunts abnormally shunt blood from the arterial to the venous circulation. This is more common then the other type of shunt because of the higher pressure in the systemic circulation. Left to right shunt
_____ to ______ shunts abnormally shunt blood from the venous to the arterial circulation, may cause ______ due to venous blood bypassing the lungs and directly entering the arterial circulation. Also known as ________ ________ heart disease. Right to left shunts cyanosis cyanotic congenital heart disease
____ to _____ shunts are more dangerous because _____ side has lots of deoxygenated blood. Right to left Right
_____ ______ defect is 10-15% of left to right shunt congenital cardiac defects. Blood is shunted from the left to right atrium. Atrial septal defect (ASD)
______ ______ defect is 25-30% of left to right shunt defects, the most common one, blood shunted from the left to right ventricle. Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
_______ _____ defect is complete left to right shunt, also called complete ________ ____ defect, all four cardiac chambers communicate with each other. >33% of these persons have ______ ______ Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) Atrioventricular canal defect Downs Syndrome
____ ______ _____ is 10-20% of congenital left to right shunts. It is a shunt outside the heart, from aorta to pulmonary artery. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
4 types of congenital right to left shunts are _____ of ______, transposition of the _____ _____, _______ ________, and _____ _______. Tetralogy of Fallot, transpostition of the great arteries, truncus arteriosus, tricuspid atresia
_______ of ______ has 4 components. _______ _______ defect. Obstruction of the ___ ventricular outflow tract, stenosis of the pulmonary valve or below the valve in the right ventricle. The aorta overrides the ventricular septum. __ ventricular hypertrophy Tetralogy of fallot Ventricular septal defect (VSD) right right
_______ of the aorta is a localized narrowing of the aorta in the arch area. 5-7% of malformations causing obstruction. _____ ____ obstruction at the pulmonary valve is 5-7%. Coarctation of the aorta pulmonary stenosis
_____ _______ is narrowing of the aortic valve or narrowing either above or below the valve (4-6%). Aortic stenosis
If the dissection ruptures to the exterior of the aorta the mortality rate is very high. >90% of dissections occur in ______ 40-60 years of age with _______. males with hypertension
Aside from older males with hypertension the remainder of dissecting aortic anuerysms occur in persons with ______ syndrome and they are usually _______. Marfans syndrome younger
Blood from the lumen of the aorta enters the media of the aortic wall and splits the wall into inner and outer layers. The blood in the aortic wall may then rupture to the exterior of the aorta or the _______ may reenter the aortic lumen. dissection
_____ ______ occurs a few weeks after pharyngitis due to group A beta hemolytic streptococci. It is immunologically mediated. _____ ______, ______, migratory polyarthritis, large joints, syndeham chorea, and subcutaneous _______ are found. Rheumatic fever Skin rash, erythema subcutaneous nodules
After rhematic fever ______ _____ disease can happen (carditis) This can later infect he kidneys as well. Rheumatic Heart disease
________ __________ has Aschoff nodules, the inflammatory focus in the myocardium, contains lumphocytes and may contain enlarged macrophages called ________ cells. Rheumatic carditis Anitschkows cells
With ______ _____ the mitral valve is involved alone in 65-70% of cases and the aortic valve in about 25% of cases. This can lead to mitral valve prolapse or stenosis. The right sided cardiac valves are only rarely involved. Rheumatic Carditis
All 3 causes of shock will cause a _______ cardiac output which leads to ______ that causes reduced tissue perfusion and hypoxic cell injury in multiple organs including the vital organs. (Brain heart, kidneys, lungs, adrenal glands, GIT). Decreased cardiac output hypotension
Shock also damages ____ Cells causing loss of fluid from the blood plasma and _______ blood volume as a result aggravating the shock endothelial cells decreased
________ shock is due to a primary disease in blood volume (abdominal) aneurysm rupture, GI bleeding, 3rd degree burns, dehydration). Hypovolemic shock
______ shock is due to a pathologic condition in the heart (myocardial infaction, cardiac tamponade, myocarditis, pulmonary embolism, arrhythmia) Cardiogenic shock
_______ shock is due to bacterial invasion into teh blood stream (more gram pos then gram neg, fungi) Septic shock
________ shock is due to neurological causes or popularly known as a "nervous breakdown" Neruogenic shock
Shock is a progressive condition that may be fatal unless treated directly at the initiated cause. 3 clinical phases. Starts with initial (_______ ) phase, then _______ phase, then ______ phase leading to _______. non progressive phase, progressive phase, irreversible phase leading to death
________ ______ _______ is an X linked recessive genetic disorder caused by deletion or other types of mutation of the dystophin gene in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle resulting in lack of scaffol protein in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Duchenne Muscular dystrophy
Dystrophin is absent from the skeletal and cardiac muscles with a person that has ______ ______ ______. Male child starting to walk age 2-5. The pelvic muscles are usually involved first causing difficulty walking. _________ muscular dystrophy. Duchenne Muscular dystrophy Pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is muscular weakness that progresses until the patient needs a wheelchair and teens in their early twenties end up dying due to ______ ____________. _______ problems may also occur including failure and arrhythmias. Respiratory failure Cardiac problems
______ ______ prevalance is 3/100,000. This happens under age 40 and is more frequent in females. The extraocular muscles are affected first. More generalized muslce weakness maybe present initally or later. Tymic hyperplasia is present and thymic tumors Myasthenia Gravis (No cardiac involvement).
_______ _____ disease (most common cause), ______ ________ disease, ______ _______ disease (calcific aortic stenosis), _______ ________ disease (viral myocarditis, hemochromatosis) are the 4 main causes of left ventricular pump failure. Ischemic heart disease (most common) Hypertensive heart disease Aortic Valve disease Primary myocardial disease
*_______ ventricular failure causes chronic passive congestion of the liver (first) and then of the spleen, kidneys and bowel, develops slowly. Right ventricular failure
*_______ ventricular failure causes pulmonary passive congestion. May be ____ or _____. Left ventricular failure acute or chronic
________ ________ is due to decreased venous outflow of blood from an organ r tissue, congestive heart failure or venous obstruction due to various causes. Passive congestion
__________ is an increased amount of blood in an organ or tissue. _______ _______ is due to increased arterial inflow of blood into an organ or tissue, inflammation, or exercising muscle. Congestion Active Congestion
Created by: T1NWHSU