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MCAT Gen. Chem Ch.12

TermDefinition
Electrochemical Cell Cell in which oxidation-reduction reactions take place.
Electrodes Strips of metal or other conductive materials placed in an electrolyte solution.
Anode Site of oxidation, which attracts anions.
Cathode Site of reduction, which attracts cations.
Electrons Flow From: The anode to the cathode.
Current Flows From: The cathode to the anode.
Cell Diagrams Shorthand notation that represents the reactions taking place in an electrochemical cell.
Cell Diagrams Are Written From: Anode to cathode with electrolytes (the solution) in between
Vertical Line In Cell Diagrams Represent: A phase boundary
Double Vertical Line In Cell Diagrams Represent: A salt bridge or other physical boundary
Galvanic (Voltaic) Cells House spontaneous reactions (Delta G < 0) with a positive electromotive force
Electrolytic Cells House nonspontaneous reactions (Delta G > 0) with a negative electromotive force. These nonspontaneous cells can be used to create useful products through electrolysis.
Concentration Cells Specialized galvanic cells in which electrodes are made of the same material. This involves a concentration gradient between the two solutions.
The Charge On An Electrode Is Dependent On: The type of electrochemical cell one is studying.
For Galvanic Cells, The Anode Is: Negatively charged and the cathode is positively charged.
For Electrolytic Cells, The Anode Is: Positively charged and the cathode is negatively charged.
Rechargeable Batteries Electrochemical cells that can experience charging (electrolytic) and discharging (galvanic) states.
Energy Density Amount of energy a cell can produce relative to the mass of battery material.
Lead-acid Batteries When Discharging Consist Of: A Pb anode and a PbO2 cathode in a concentrated sulfuric acid solution. When charging, the PbSO4- plated electrodes are dissociated to restore the original Pb and PbO2 electrodes and concentrate the electrolyte.
Lead Acid Batteries Have A Low: Energy density
Nickel-Cadmium Batteries (Ni-Cd) When Discharging Consist Of: A Cd anode and a NiO(OH) cathode in a conc. KOH solution.
When A Ni-Cd Battery Is Charging: The Ni(OH)2- and Cd(OH)2- plated electrodes are dissociated to restore the original Cd and NiO(OH) electrodes and concentrate the electrolyte.
Ni-Cd Batteries Have A Higher Energy Density Than: Lead-acid batteries
Nickel-metal Hydrige (NiMH) Batteries Have: More or less replaced Ni-Cd batteries because they have higher energy density, are more cost effective, and are significantly less toxic
Surge Current Above-average current transiently released at the beginning of the discharge phase. It wanes rapidly until a stable current is achieved.
Reduction Potential Quantifies the tendency for a species to gain electrons and be reduced.
The Higher The Reduction Potential: The more a given species wants to be reduced.
Standard Electromotive Force (E^ocell) Difference in standard reduction potential between the two half-cells
Electromotive Force And Change In Free Energy Always Have: Opposite signs
Keq > 1, E^o cell is: Positive
Keq < 1, E^o cell is: negative
Keq = 1, E^o cell is: 0
Eq. 12.1: Moles of Electrons Transferred During Reduction M^n+ + n * e- --> M(s). n = moles of electrons
Eq. 12.2: Electrodeposition Equation mol M = It / nF. I = current. t = time. n = number of electron equivalents for a specific metal ion.
Eq. 12.3: Standard Electromotive Force Of A Cell E^o Cell = E^o red, cathode - E^o red, anode
Eq. 12.4: Standard Change In Free Energy From Standard emf: Delta G ^ o = -nFE^o cell. n = number of electron equivalents of a metal ion. F = Faraday constant, 96,485 C / mol e-.
Eq. 12.5: Nernst Equation (full) Ecell = E^o cell - RT / nF * ln Q. F = Faraday constant, 96,485 C / mol e-. R = ideal gas constant. R = ideal gas constant, 8.314 j / k*mol.
Eq. 12.6: Nernst Equation Simplified
Created by: SamB91