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GA Studies Content
Year long review of 8th Grade Georgia Studies Content terms
|the oldest prehistoric Native American culture group; hunted large, slow moving animals with Clovis Point spear and were nomadic.
|First prehistoric Native American culture group to make pottery; hunted small game like deer, bear with atlatl; horticulture began during this period.
|Invented the bow and arrow; mound builders; lived in dome-shaped huts, semi-permanent
|Religion based leadership with temple mounds, wore headdresses and tattoos; palisades and moats show the need for defense during this time. Permanent dwellings, because of reliance on agriculture
|Ridge and Valley
|Geographic region known for apple growth and and textiles.
|Smallest region, TAG corner
|Most populated region in GA, center of business in Georgia, rolling hills
|where hilly, mountainous land meets the coastal plain; separates the Piedmont region from the Coastal Plain.
|Largest region (3/5ths of the state), center of agriculture, home to Okefenokee Swamp and 100 miles of coastline.
|Highest region in elevation in GA, region with most precipitation, has Brasstown Bald, highest point in GA, Mountainous
|Largest swamp in North America, located in S.E. GA
|Makes up GA's SW border with Alabama
|Makes up GA's eastern border with S.C.
|Off the coast of GA, protect mainland from erosion.
|Hernando de Soto
|First European to step foot in and explore present day GA. Spread disease and death among Native American population
|Spanish churches established along GA's coast to convert Natives to Catholicism. Guale (Wallie) famous reason
|Founded GA in 1733, wanted to improve prison conditions in England by sending debtors to new colony
|Charter of 1732
|signed by King George II; legal document that establishes the colony of GA; It was granted to a group of 21 trustees. Establishes GA's original boundaries as Savannah River to Altamaha and westward indefinitely
|Catholics, blacks, lawyers, liquor dealers
|4 groups of people were banned from GA by the 21 Trustees
|Charity, mercantilism, defense
|main causes for settling GA
|Yamacraw mico (chief) who allowed Oglethorpe to settle on Yamacraw Bluff, became friends with J.E.O.
|Translator between Oglethorpe and Tomochichi
|First city in GA, first planned city in the New World
|German Protestants who settled in Ebenezer, GA; they came to escape religious persecution and because GA was anti-slave; moved to New Ebenezer because of the poor soil in Ebenezer.
|known for being good soldiers; they were anti-slavery; settled in Darien, GA and helped Oglethorpe in the Battle of Bloody Marsh.
|In colonial GA, they were known for being unhappy and contstantly complaining; they did not agree with regulations on slavery, the sale of rum, and ownership of land
|Threat to English colonies up the East Coast, GA was established to be a buffer between other colonies
|1st Royal Governor, introduced self-government and bi-cameral legislature
|2nd Royal Governor, wimpy, left because it was too hot for him
|The "Wright" man for the job- 3rd and final Royal Governor, expanded defenses of colony. Longest serving of the Governors
|French and Indian War
|Britain v. France. Fight over control of Ohio River valley. Led to British debt, new taxes on colonies, and Proclamation of 1763
|Proclamation of 1763
|forbid colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains; Changed GA's southern border to the St. Mary's River and western border to the Mississippi River.
|Tax on paper goods; newspapers, legal documents, licenses, playing cards, etc.
|response to the Boston Tea Party; Included 1) No town meetings 2) Boston port would be closed until tea could be paid for. 3) Quartering Act 4) British officials charged with a crime would be tried in Great Britain.
|Declaration of Independence
|Statement of colonial independence from Great Britain. 3 parts; Preamble, Complaints, Declaration
|Person/people who remain loyal to Great Britain and King George III
|Person/people who wanted to break away from Great Britain and King George III
|Leader of GA militia in the Battle of Kettle Creek
|Battle of Kettle Creek
|Patriot victory in GA during American Revolution. GA got needed weapons and a boost in morale
|Black soldier during American Revolution. Saved life of Elijah Clarke in Battle of Kettle Creek. Received land for fighting in the Revolution
|American Revolutionary who killed a group of Tories. Only female to have GA county named after her.
|Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton
|GA signers of the Declaration of Independence
|Siege of Savannah
|Patriots tried to retake Savannah from British, failed.
|GA Constitution of 1777
|1st constitution of GA, created 3 branches, had unicameral legislature with majority of power (no checks and balances)
|Articles of Confederation
|the first written plan for the government of the United States of America; it created a weak central government and each state received one vote in Congress; There was no executive or judicial branch.
|GA signer of the Constitution, deciding vote in Great Compromise about creating legislature
|GA signer of the Constitution
|Bill of Rights
|First 10 Amendments to U.S. Constitution. Guarantees basic rights and regulates federal governmental power.
|3rd capitol of GA, Yazoo land fraud documents burnt here by "fire from the heavens"
|Baptist and Methodist
|2 largest religious denominations in a westwardly expanding GA.
|Land distribution system under which each white male head of a family had right to receive up to 1000 acres
|Land distribution system under which any white male 21 years or older could buy a chance to win land. Widows could also participate. Replaces the Headright system
|Yazoo land fraud
|GA scandal that caused GA to lose all land west of the Chattahoochee River, known as the Mississippi territory
|enabled farmers to quickly separate seed from cotton. Made cotton "king" and caused need for slaves to dramatically increase
|Invented cotton gin
|cause of Terminus, later renamed Atlanta. Allowed for cheap, quick movement of people, goods westward
|Creek Chief. Led Oconee War against US. Ceded Creek land east of the Oconee (most of the Creek's territory in Georgia)
|Creek Chief. Signed Treaty of Indian Springs ceding/selling remaining Creek land to GA.
|Created Cherokee syllabary
|group of symbols that stand for whole syllables
|Dahlonega Gold Rush
|Discovery of Gold in Cherokee territory expedited the removal of Cherokee from Georgia.
|U.S. Supreme Court decision in which John Marshall ruled that Cherokee territory was not subject to state law. Althought it was thought to be a victory for the Cherokee, the state of GA and even the President refused to follow the decision.
|U.S. President who signed the Indian Removal Act, removing Cherokee from GA. Ignored Supreme Court decision protecting Cherokee sovereignty.
|Chief Justice of Supreme Court ruled in favor of Cherokee in Worcester v. GA
|Trail of Tears
|Forced removal of Cherokee from GA to Oklahoma territory. 1/3 of Cherokee died on trail.
|Cherokee Chief who traveled to Washington to try and protect Cherokee lands in GA
|period before the Civil War
|free labor force
|idea that the state's interest should take precedence over the interest of national government
|the early 1800's belief that a state could refuse to enforce the federal law.
|Under this legislation, Maine entered the Union as a free state and Missouri entered as a slave state. This also stipulated that slavery would not be allowed north of Missouri's southern border.
|Compromise of 1850
|Under this legislation, California entered the Union as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act was passed, and slave trading was no longer allowed in Washington D.C.
|this was basically a statement supporting the Compromise of 1850 in Georgia.
|Created territories of Nebraska and Kansas and gave them popular sovereignty in determining whether or not they would be a slave or free state
|Dred Scott Case
|Court case in which a slave sued for his freedom based on the fact that he had lived in a free state. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the slave could not sue because he was a slave and not a citizen.
|authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
|Election of 1860
|Election of first Repbulican president (Lincoln). Would lead to S.C. secession
|First Republican elected President of the U.S.. Led through Civil War
|Despite his strong support for GA to remain in the Union, once GA secceded, this man still became the vice president of the Confederate States of America.
|Civil War battle. Bloodiest single day battle in American history. Followed by Emancipation Proclamation
|Changed focus of Civil War from bringing back the South to ending slavery
|Battle of Gettysburg
|Turning point of Civil War, the North starts to win.
|Battle of Chickamauga
|Mismanaged Confederate victory in Civil War that would eventually allow North in Georgia
|Part of North's "Anaconda Plan" to win Civil War; to obstruct or block all Confederate ports
|March to the Sea
|Military exercise led by General Sherman from Atlanta to Savannah. "Total War" idea used instructs soldiers to destroy everything in their path. Used to end southern support for Civil War
|William Tecumseh Sherman
|Infamous Union General who lead the Atlanta Campaign and the March to the Sea. Succeeded in ending southern support for the Civil War
|Awful Civil War Prison in GA for Union Soldiers
|This government agency helped former slaves adjust to their new freedom after the Civil War. They offered food, clothing, and other necessities as well as having a focus on education.
|System of farming in which a person has nothing but the knowledge of farming. Farms on another's land using another's tools
|System of farming where the farmer has everything except land, so they rent land
|Lincolns Reconstruction plan; sought to bring the South back into the Union quickly and look towards the future
|This Reconstruction plan sought to treat the South like a conquered country. It was much harsher than Lincoln's plan espcially on the wealthy Southerners.
|Amendment that abolishes slavery
|Amendment grants citizenship and rights to all born on U.S. soil.
|Amendment that protects voting rights for all men. States that voting rights cannot be restricted based on race
|Laws designed to restrict the rights of freedmen
|Ku Klux Klan
|Secret organization that tried to keep freedmen from exercising their new civil rights. This often involved inflicting terror through beatings or killings.
|3 political leaders of the state of GA who were drawn together by power and political goals. They helped GA's economy recover after Reconstruction, and returned GA to white supremacy
|Coined the term "New South", or to be more like the industrialized north
|International Cotton Exposition
|Fair in GA to show off state's recovery from the Civil War and our natural resources. Used to lure in northern investors
|This Georgia populist leader called on black and white farmers to unite in an effort to gain fair treatment from the state and national government. He was also responsible for introducing the Rural Free Delivery bill while in Cogress.
|Rebecca Lattimer Felton
|Georgian in opposition to the Bourbon Triumvirate. Leader of suffrage and temperance movements. 1st woman in U.S. Senate
|1906 Atlanta Riot
|Race riot in Atlanta due to tension built by newspapers. 21 ended up dead
|Leo Frank Case
|Court case displaying racism in GA. Led to re-emergence of KKK on top of Stone Mountain
|County Unit System
|Voting system in Georgia giving rural areas more political power
|Jim Crow laws
|discriminatory laws passed to establish "separate-but-equal" laws
|Plessy v. Ferguson
|Supreme Court case establishing segregation as the law of the land
|Having voting rights taken away
|Bookwer T. Washington
|This civil rights leader was the president of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. He believed economic independence was the only way to social and political equality for blacks. He also gave a famous speech at the Cotton Expo of 1895
|This civil rights leader believed the "Talented Tenth" of the African American population could serve as leaders for all other African Americans. Wanted equality now rather than later. Founding member of NAACP
|Friend and supporter of W.E.B. DuBois. President of Atlanta College and founding member of NAACP
|Lugenia Burns Hope
|Wife of John Hope and founder of Neighborhood Union.
|Former slave who started Atlanta Mutual Life Insurance.
|Causes of WWI
|Militarism, imperialism, nationalism, and secret alliances. Sinking of the Lusitania, Zimmermann Telegraph
|GA Contributions to WWI
|Training bases, textile mills making uniforms, RR's transporting soldiers and supplies, deep water ports, victory gardens, 3000 GA soldiers dying
|Insect that ate cotton
|lack of rain
|Causes of the Great Depression
|Lenient lending by banks, overproduction, unemployment, buying goods on credit, stock market crash
|GA Governor who opposed the New Deal
|Series of programs designed to end the Great Depression through unemployment relief, economic recovery, and depression prevention
|Civilian Conservation Corps
|New Deal program that gave jobs to young, single men planting trees and building parks
|Agricultural Adjustment Act
|New Deal program to aid farmers through supply control
|Rural Electrification Administration
|New Deal program designed to bring cheap electricity to rural areas. The program comes specifically from FDR's time in Warm Springs
|Social Security Administration
|This New Deal program created a system of retirement and unemployment insurance for Americans
|U.S. Naval base in the Pacific Ocean that was sight of a Japanese surprise attack on Dec. 7, 1941. Pulled U.S. into WWII
|Lend lease act
|policy used by the U.S. at the beginning of WWII to allow Great Britain to borrow or rent weapons.
|Savannah and Brunswick
|Deep water ports in GA, sites of Liberty ship shipyards
|This Marietta factory built B-29 bombers, AKA Bell Bombers, during WWII and created 668 planes during the war.
|Georgia city visited by FDR many times; sit of the "Little White House" and the location of FDR's death.
|This Georgia Congressman helped expand the U.S. Navy leading up to WWII; he is known as the "Father of the Two Ocean Navy".
|Richard B. Russell
|This U.S. Senator from GA helped bring military bases to GA as well as being known as the "Father of the School Lunch Program".
|William B. Hartsfield
|Atlanta Mayor known for making Atlanta the aviation hub of the southeast
|Ivan Allen Jr
|Mayor of Atlanta who had segregationists signs torn off of City Hall, brought pro sports to Atlanta, and who helped Atlanta become the "city too busy to hate"
|The Falcons, Braves, Hawks
|Changed voting age to 18, part of "3 Governors Controversy"
|Mentor to Martin Luther King Jr. taught him about non-violent teachings of Gandhi
|1946 Governor's Race
|3 Governors Controversy: Eugene Talmadge won, but died before he could take office. 2 People claimed the right to be governor; the Lt. Gov. and Herman Talmadge. Talmadge won in a special election.
|Son of Eugene; White Supremacist; Extended school year to 9 months and shcool to grades 1-12; Introduced state's 1st sales tax.
|Brown v. Board of Education
|Supreme Court case ruling that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and made segregation of public places illegal
|Martin Luther King Jr
|Civil rights leader who used nonviolence to bring about change; He gave his "I Have a Dream" Speech at the March on Washington for jobs and equality
|1956 state flag
|Flag changed in response to Brown v. Board and prominently displays Confederate battle flag
|Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee
|Formed by college students. They helped register to vote and led sit-ins, boycotts, and Freedom Riders.
|Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter
|First black students to integrate UGA
|Failed movement to desegregate entire city of Albany, GA. Led by SNCC and Martin Luther King Jr.
|March on Washington
|Protest to support equal rights and jobs for blacks. MLK Jr. gave his "I have a dream" speech
|Civil Rights Act of 1964
|This forced the integration of all public facilities including schools, restaurants, hotels, theaters, and recreation facilities. Initiated by JFK and signed by LBJ
|First black mayor of Atlanta or any other major southern city.
|Segregationist governor of Georgia who appointed more black to office than all prior governors combined
|1st black U.S. Congressman from GA since Reconstruction. Ambassador to the United Nations. 2nd black mayor of Atlanta. Helped bring the Olympics to to Atlanta.
|redrawing congressional voting districts to make sure that voting is fair
|Served as GA state senator, governor, and the U.S. President; cut down GA's government to be more efficient
|1996 Atlanta Olympics
|In the summer of 1996; brought millions of dollars in revenue to Atlanta; Atlanta's infrastructure was criticized for causing traffic problems.
|Unruly behavior/status offense
|a law that has been broken that only applies to juveniles
|Offense by a juvenile that would still be a crime if committed by an adult
|bicameral lawmaking body in Georgia; comprised of 180 Representatives and 56 Senators
|branch that judges the constitutionality of Georgia laws; headed by Supreme Court of 7 Justices
|Largest branch of government in GA; Led by Governor and Lieutenant Governor.
|elected leader for the state of Georgia
|Type of local government body that gives city council power, while taking it away from the city mayor
|Checks and balances
|System to keep governmental branches equal
|Separation of Powers
|Assigning certain power to each branch of government; no other branch can then use that power
|Name for Georgia's bicameral lawmaking body
|7 Deadly Sins
|Crimes committed by a juvenile that would get minor charged as adult with minimum 10 year prison sentence
|Type of local government body that gives city mayor power, while taking it away from the city council
|Type of local government body in which a city has a council that chooses a city manager to run the city on a day-to-day basis
|Revenue left over after all expenses have been paid
|person who starts a business
|another word for a city
|Special Purpose government
|Government body created by the legislature that operates independently of governmental structures. Ex: Marta, port authority,