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MCAT Gen. Chem Ch.11

Oxidation Loss of electrons
Reduction Gain of electrons
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reaction in which both oxidation and reduction are paired together
Oxidizing Agen Facilitates the oxidation of another compound and is reduced itself in the process
Reducing Agent Facilitates the reduction of another compound and is itself oxidized in the process
Common Oxidizing Agents Contain: Oxygen or a similarly electronegative element
Common Reducing Agents Contain: Metal ions or hydrides (H-)
Any Free Element Or Diatomic Species Has An Oxidation Number Of: Zero
The Oxidation Number Of A Monoatomic Ion Is: Equal to the charge of the ion.
Group IA Metals In Compounds Have An Oxidation Number Of: +1
Group II A Metals In Compounds Have An Oxidation Number Of: +2
Group VIIA Elements In Compounds Have An Oxidation Number Of: -1
Oxidation State Of Hydrogen Is: +1
Oxidation State Of Hydrogen When Paired With A Less Electronegative Element Is: -1
Oxidation State Of Oxygen Is Usually: -2
Oxidation Of Oxygen In Peroxides Or In Compounds With More Electronegative Elements Is: -2
Sum Of Oxidation Numbers Of All Atoms Present In A Compound Is: Equal to overall charge of that compound
Steps Of The Half-Reaction Method When Balancing Redox Reactions (First Half): Separate the two half reactions, balance the atoms of each half-reaction by starting with elements besides H and O. In acidic solutions, balance H and O using water and H+. In basic solutions, balance H and O using water and OH-.
Steps Of The Half-Reaction Method When Balancing Redox Reactions (Second Half): Balance the charges of each half-reaction by adding electrons as necessary to one side of the reaction. Multiply the half-reactions as necessary to obtain the same number of electrons in both half-reactions.
Steps Of The Half-Reaction Method When Balancing Redox Reactions (Third Half): Add the half-reactions while canceling out terms on both sides of the reaction arrow. Confirm that the mass and charge are balanced.
Complete Ionic Equation: Accounts for all of the ions present in a reaction.
To Write A Complete Ionic Reaction: Split all aqueous compounds into their relevant ions. Keep solid salts intact.
Net Ionic Equations Ignore spectator ions to focus only on the species that actually participate in the reaction. To obtain a net ionic reaction, subtract the ions appearing on both sides of the reaction which are called spectator ions.
For Reactions That Contain No Aqueous Salts, The Net Ionic Equation Is: Generally the same as the overall balanced reaction
For Double Displacement / Metathesis Reactions That Do Not Form A Solid Salt, There Is: No net ionic reaction because all ions remain in solution and do not change oxidation number.
Disproportionation (Dismutation) Reactions Type of redox reactions in which one element is both oxidized and reduced, forming at least two molecules containing the element with different oxidation states.
Oxidation-reduction Titrations Similar to acid-base titrations and follow transfer of charge.
Indicators Used In Oxidation-Reduction Titrations Change Color: When certain voltages of solutions are achieved
Potentiometric Titration Form of redox titration in which a voltmeter or external cell measures the electromotive force (emf) of a solution. No indicator is used, and the equivalence point is determined by a sharp change in voltage.
Created by: SamB91