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MCAT Gen. Chem Ch.10

TermDefinition
Arrhenius Acids Dissociate to produce an excess of hydrogen ions in solution
Arrhenius Bases Dissociate to produce an excess of hydroxide ions in solution
Bronsted-Lowry Acids Species that can donate hydrogen ions.
Bronsted Lowry Bases Species that can accept hydrogen ions
Lewis Acid Electron-pair acceptors
Lewis Bases Electron-pair donators
Note About Arrhenius And Lewis Acid / Bases All Arrhenius acids and bases are Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases. All Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases are Lewis acids and bases.
Amphoteric Species Species that can behave as an acid or base
Amphiprotic Species Amphoteric species that are amphoteric species that specifically can behave as a Bronsted-Lowry acid or Bronsted-Lowry base
Water Is An Example Of A: Amphoteric, amphiprotic species since it can accept a hydrogen ion to become a hydronium ion, or donate a hydrogen ion to become a hydroxide ion.
Conjugate Species Of Polyvalent Acids And Bases Can Also: Behave as amphoteric and amphiprotic species.
Water Dissociation Constant, Kw 10^-14 at 298 K. This is only affected by changes in temp.
Strong Acids And Bases: Completely dissociate in solution
Weak Acids And bases: Do not completely dissociate in solution and have corresponding dissociation constants (Ka and Kb)
Neutralization Reactions Form salts and sometimes water
Equivalent One mole of the species of interest
Normality Conc. of acid or base equivalents in solution.
Polyvalent Acids And Bases Acids and bases that can donate or accept multiple electrons.
Titrations Used to determine the conc. of a known reactant in a solution.
Titrant Has a known conc. and is added slowly to the titrand to reach the equivalence point
Titrand Has an unknown conc. but a known volume
Half-equivalence Point Midpoint of the buffering region in which half of the titrant has been protonated (or deprotonated) thus [HA] = [A-] and a buffer is formed.
Equivalence Point Indicated by the steepest slope in a titration curve. This is reached when the number of acid equivalents in the original solution equals the number of base equivalents added, or vice-versa.
pH = 7 For Equiv Points This is for Strong Acid and Strong Base Titrations
pH > 7 For Equiv Points This is for Weak Acid and Strong Base Titrations
pH < 7 For Equiv Points This is for Weak Base and Strong Acid Titrations
pH Above Or Below 7 For Equiv Points This can be for weak acid and weak base titrations, depending on the relative strength of the acid and base
Indicators Weak acids or bases that display different colors in their protonated and deprotonated forms
Indicator Chosen For A Titration Should Have A pKa Close To: The pH of the expected equivalence point
Endpoint Of A Titration When the indicator reaches its final color.
Multiple Buffering Regions And Equivalence Points Are Observed In: Polyvalent acid and base titrations
Buffer Solutions Consist of a mix. of a weak acid and its conjugate salt or a weak base and its conjugate salt. They resist large fluctuations in pH.
Buffering Capacity Ability of a buffer to resist changes in pH. Maximal buffering capacity is seen within 1 pH point of the pKa of the acid in the buffer solution.
Henderson-Hasselbach Equation Quantifies the relationship between pH and pKa for weak acids and between pOH and pKb for weak bases.
When A Solution Is Optimally Buffered: pH = pKa and pOH = pKb
Eq. 10.1 Autoionization Constant For Water Kw = [H30+][OH-] = 10^-14 at 25C (298K)
Eq. 10.2: Definitions of pH and pOH pH = -log[H+] = log 1/[H+]. pOH = -log[OH-] = log 1/[OH-]
Eq. 10.3: Relationship of pH and pOH at 298 K pH + pOH = 14
Eq. 10.4: P Scale Value Approximation p value = m - 0.n
Eq. 10.5: Acid Dissociation Constant Ka = [H30+][A-] / [HA]
Eq. 10.6: Base Dissociation Constant Kb = [B+][OH-] / [BOH]
Eq. 10.7: Relationship of Ka and Kb at 298 K Ka,acid * Kb,conjugate base = KW. Kb,base * Ka,conjugate acid = Kw
Eq. 10.8: Equivalence Point NaVa = NbVb. Na and Nb = acid and base normalities. Va and Vb = acid and base volumes.
Eq. 10.9: Henderson-Hasselbalch (Acid Buffer) pH = pKa + log ([A-]/[HA])
Eq. 10.10: Henderson-Hasselbalch (Base Buffer) pOH = pKb + log([B+]/[BOH])
Created by: SamB91