Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

MCAT Gen. Chem Ch. 9

Solutions: Homogenous mixtures composed of two or more substances
Solvent Particles Surround Solute Particles Via: Electrostatic interactions in a process called solvation
Hydration: Solvation in water
Solubility: Max amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given solvent at a given temp. Max amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given solvent at a given temp.
Molar Solubility: The molarity of the solute at saturation
Complex Ions / Coordination Compounds: Composed of metallic ions bound to various neutral compounds and anions referred to as Ligands
Formation Of Complex Ions Increases The Solubility Of: Otherwise insoluble ions (opp of common ion effect)
Process Of Forming A Complex Ion Involves: Electron pair donors and electron pair acceptors such as those seen in coordinate covalent bonding
Normality (Number of equivalents per liters of solution): Molarity of the species of interest and is used for acid-base and oxidation-reduction reactions
Solubility Product Constant, Ksp: The equilibrium constant for a dissolution reaction.
Comparison Of The Ion Product (IP) To Ksp Determines: The level of saturation and behavior of the solution
IP < Ksp: The solution is unsaturated and if more solute is added, it will dissolve
IP = Ksp: The solution is saturated at equilibrium, and there will be no change in concentrations
IP > Ksp: The solution is supersaturated and a precipitate will form
Formation / Stability Constant (Kt): Equilibrium constant for complex formation. Its value is much greater than Ksp.
Formation Of A Complex Increases The Solubility Of Other Salts Containing The Same Ions Because: It uses up the products of these dissolution reactions, shifting the equilibrium to the right (opp of the common ion effect)
Common Ion Effect: Decreases the solubility of a compound in a solution that already contains one of the ions in the compound. The presence of that ion in solution shifts the dissolution reaction to the left, decreasing its dissociation.
Colligative Properties: Physical properties of solutions that depend on the conc. of dissolved particles but not on their chemical identity.
Vapor Pressure Depressure Follows: Raoult's Law
Raoult's Law (First Part): The presence of other solutes decreases the evaporation rate of a solvent without affecting its condensation rate, thus decreasing its vapor pressure.
Raoult's Law (Second Part): Vapor pressure depression also explains boiling point elevation: As the vapor pressure decreases, the temperature required to boil the liquid must be raised.
Freezing Point Depression / Boiling Point Elevation: Shifts in the phase equilibria dependent on the molality of the solution
Osmotic Pressure: Dependent on the molarity of the solution
Van't Hoff Factor (i): Used for solutes that dissociate in freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and osmotic pressure calculations.
Eq. 9.1: Percent Composition By Mass: Mass of solute / Mass of solution * 100%
Eq. 9.2: Mole Fraction: XA = moles of A / total moles of all species
Eq. 9.3: Molarity: M = moles of solute / liters of solution
Eq. 9.4: Molality: m = moles of solute / kilograms of solvent
Eq. 9.5: Dilution Formula: MiVi = MfVf
Eq. 9.6: Solubility Product Constant: Ksp = [A^n+]^m*[B^m-]^n
Eq. 9.7: Ion Product: IP = [A^n+]^m*[B^m-]^n
Eq. 9.8: Raoult's Law (Vapor Pressure Depression): PA = XA*PA^0
Eq. 9.9: Boiling Point Elevation: ΔTb = i*Kb*m
Eq. 9.10: Freezing Point Depression: ΔTf = i*Kf*m
Eq. 9.11: Osmotic Pressure: II = iMRT. II = Osmotic pressure. i = van't Hoff factor. M = Molarity of solution. R = ideal gas constant, 8.314 J/K*mol.T = temp.
Created by: SamB91