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MCAT Gen. Chem Ch. 9

Solutions: Homogenous mixtures composed of two or more substances
Solvent Particles Surround Solute Particles Via: Electrostatic interactions in a process called solvation
Hydration: Solvation in water
Solubility: Max amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given solvent at a given temp. Max amount of solute that can be dissolved in a given solvent at a given temp.
Molar Solubility: The molarity of the solute at saturation
Complex Ions / Coordination Compounds: Composed of metallic ions bound to various neutral compounds and anions referred to as Ligands
Formation Of Complex Ions Increases The Solubility Of: Otherwise insoluble ions (opp of common ion effect)
Process Of Forming A Complex Ion Involves: Electron pair donors and electron pair acceptors such as those seen in coordinate covalent bonding
Normality (Number of equivalents per liters of solution): Molarity of the species of interest and is used for acid-base and oxidation-reduction reactions
Solubility Product Constant, Ksp: The equilibrium constant for a dissolution reaction.
Comparison Of The Ion Product (IP) To Ksp Determines: The level of saturation and behavior of the solution
IP < Ksp: The solution is unsaturated and if more solute is added, it will dissolve
IP = Ksp: The solution is saturated at equilibrium, and there will be no change in concentrations
IP > Ksp: The solution is supersaturated and a precipitate will form
Formation / Stability Constant (Kt): Equilibrium constant for complex formation. Its value is much greater than Ksp.
Formation Of A Complex Increases The Solubility Of Other Salts Containing The Same Ions Because: It uses up the products of these dissolution reactions, shifting the equilibrium to the right (opp of the common ion effect)
Common Ion Effect: Decreases the solubility of a compound in a solution that already contains one of the ions in the compound. The presence of that ion in solution shifts the dissolution reaction to the left, decreasing its dissociation.
Colligative Properties: Physical properties of solutions that depend on the conc. of dissolved particles but not on their chemical identity.
Vapor Pressure Depressure Follows: Raoult's Law
Raoult's Law (First Part): The presence of other solutes decreases the evaporation rate of a solvent without affecting its condensation rate, thus decreasing its vapor pressure.
Raoult's Law (Second Part): Vapor pressure depression also explains boiling point elevation: As the vapor pressure decreases, the temperature required to boil the liquid must be raised.
Freezing Point Depression / Boiling Point Elevation: Shifts in the phase equilibria dependent on the molality of the solution
Osmotic Pressure: Dependent on the molarity of the solution
Van't Hoff Factor (i): Used for solutes that dissociate in freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and osmotic pressure calculations.
Eq. 9.1: Percent Composition By Mass: Mass of solute / Mass of solution * 100%
Eq. 9.2: Mole Fraction: XA = moles of A / total moles of all species
Eq. 9.3: Molarity: M = moles of solute / liters of solution
Eq. 9.4: Molality: m = moles of solute / kilograms of solvent
Eq. 9.5: Dilution Formula: MiVi = MfVf
Eq. 9.6: Solubility Product Constant: Ksp = [A^n+]^m*[B^m-]^n
Eq. 9.7: Ion Product: IP = [A^n+]^m*[B^m-]^n
Eq. 9.8: Raoult's Law (Vapor Pressure Depression): PA = XA*PA^0
Eq. 9.9: Boiling Point Elevation: ΔTb = i*Kb*m
Eq. 9.10: Freezing Point Depression: ΔTf = i*Kf*m
Eq. 9.11: Osmotic Pressure: II = iMRT. II = Osmotic pressure. i = van't Hoff factor. M = Molarity of solution. R = ideal gas constant, 8.314 J/K*mol.T = temp.
Created by: SamB91
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