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MCAT Gen. Chem Ch. 7

Isolated Systems Exchange neither matter nor energy with the environment.
Closed Systems Can exchange energy but not matter with the environment.
Open Systems Can exchange both energy and matter with the environment
Isothermal Processes Occur at a constant temperature.
Adiabatic Processes Exchange no heat with the environment
Isobaric Processes Occur at a constant pressure
Isovolumetric (Isochoric) Processes Processes that occur at a constant volume.
State Functions Describe the physical properties of an equilibrium state. They are pathway independent and include pressure, density, temperature, volume, enthalpy, internal energy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy.
Standard Conditions Defined as 298 K, 1 atm, and 1 M concentrations.
Standard State Of An Element Has The Following Standard Conditions: Standard enthalpy, standard entropy, and standard free energy that is calculated under standard conditions
Phase Changes Exist At: Characteristic temperatures and pressures.
Fusion (Melting) And Freezing (Crystallization Or Solidification): Occur at the boundary between the solid and liquid phases.
Vaporization (Evaporation Or Boiling) And Condensation: Occur at the boundary between the liquid and the gas phases.
Sublimation And Deposition: Occur at the boundary between the solid and gas phases.
At Temps Above The Critical Point: Liquid and gas phases are indistinguishable.
At The Triple Point: All three phases of matter exist in equilibrium.
Phase Diagram Graphs the phases and phase equilibria as a function of temperture and pressure
Temperature Scaled measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance
Heat Transfer of energy that results from differences of temperature between two substances.
Enthalpy Measure of the potential energy of a system found in intermolecular attractions and chemical bonds. This can be calculated using heats of formation, heats of combustion, or bond dissociation energies.
Hess's Law States that the total change in potential energy of a system is equal to the changes of potential energies of the individual steps of the process
Entropy Measure of the degree to which energy has been spread throughout a system or between a system and its surroundings. It is the ratio of heat transferred per mole per unit kelvin. It is maxed at equilibrium.
Gibbs Free Energy Derived from both enthalpy and entropy values for a given system.
Delta G < 0 Reaction proceeds in forward direction (spontaneous)
Delta G = 0 Reaction is in dynamic equilibrium
Delta G > 0 Reaction proceeds in reverse direction (nonspontaneous)
Gibbs Free Energy Depends On: Temperature, specifically temperature-dependent processes change between spontaneous and nonspontaneous
Created by: SamB91