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MCAT Gen. Chem Ch. 5

Gibbs Free Energy (Delta G) Determines whether or not a reaction is spontaneous
Chemical Mechanisms Propose a series of steps that make up the overall reaction
Intermediates Molecules that exist within the course of a reaction, but are neither reactants nor products overall
Rate-determining Step Limits the max. rate at which the reaction can proceed.
Collision Theory States that a reaction rate is proportional to the number of effective collisions between reacting molecules
For A Collision To Be Effective, Molecules Must Be: In the proper orientation and have sufficient kinetic energy to exceed the activation energy
Arrhenius Equation Mathematical way of representing collision theory
Transition State Theory States that molecules form a transition state or activated complex during a reaction in which old bonds are partially dissociated and the new bonds are partially formed
Transition State Highest point on a free energy reaction diagram
Increasing The Conc. Of Reactants Will: Increase reaction rate (except for zero-order reactions) because there are more effective collisions per time
Increasing The Temperature Will: Increase reaction rate because the particles' kinetic energy is increased.
Changing The Medium can: Increase or decrease reaction rate, depending on two the reactants interact with the medium
Adding A Catalyst: Increases reaction rate because it lower the activation energy.
Homogeneous Catalysts Are in the same phase as the reactants
Heterogeneous catalysts Are in a different phase as the reactants.
Rate Orders Usually Do Not: Match the stoichiometric coefficients
Rate Order Of A Reaction Sum of all the individual rate orders in the rate law
Zero-order Reactions Have a constant rate that does not depend on the concentration of each reaction
Rate Of A Zero-Order Reaction can Only Be Affected By: Changing the temperature or adding a catalyst
Conc. vs Time Graph Of A Zero-Order Reaction Is A: Straight line. The slope of the line is -k.
First-order reactions Have a nonconstant rate that depends on the conc. of reactant.
Conc. vs Time Graph Of A First-order Reaction Is: Nonlinear. The slope of a ln[A] vs time plot is -k for a first order reaction.
Second-order Reactions Have a nonconstant rate that depends on the concentration of reactant.
Conc. vs Time Graph Of A Second Order Reaction Is A: Nonlinear curve. Slope of a 1/[A] vs time plot is k for a second-order reaction.
Broken-order Reactions Reactions with noninteger orders.
Mixed-order Reactions Reactions that have a rate order that changes over time.
Eq. 5.1: Collision Theory Rate = Z x f. Z = total number of collisions per second. f = fraction of collisions that are effective.
Eq. 5.2: Arrhenius Equation: k = Ae ^ - Ea / RT. k = rate constant of reaction. A = frequency factor. Ea = activation energy of reaction R = idea gas constant, 8.314 J/k*mol. T = temperature in Kelvin.
Eq. 5.3: Definition Of Rate Rate = - Delta[A] / a*Delta t = - Delta[B] / b * Delta t = Delta[C] / c * Delta t = DeltaD] / d * Delta t. For the general reaction aA + bB --> cC + dD
Eq. 5.4: Rate Law Rate = k[A]^x[B]^y. k = reaction rate coefficient / constant. x and y = orders of the reaction.
Eq. 5.5: Radioactive Decay [A]t = [A]0 * e^-kt. [A]t = conc of A at time t. [A]0 = initial conc of A. k = rate constant. t = time.
Created by: SamB91