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MCAT Gen. Chem Ch. 4

Compounds Substances composed of two or more elements in a fixed composition
Molecular Weight Mass (amu) of the constituent atoms in a compound as indicated by the molecular formula
Molar Mass Mass of one mole (Avogadro's number or 6.022 x 10^23 particles) of a compound measured in grams per mole
Gram Equivalent Weight Measure of the mass of a substance that can donate one equivalent of the species of interest.
Normality Ratio of equivalents per liter. It is related to molarity by multiplying the molarity by the number of equivalents present per mole of compound.
Equivalents Moles of the species of interest. Equivalents are most often seen in acid-base chemistry (hydrogen ions or hydroxide ions) and oxidation-reduction reactions (moles of electrons or other ions)
Law Of Constant Composition States that any pure sample of a compound will contain the same elements in the same mass ratio.
Empirical Formula Smallest whole number ratio of the elements in a compound.
Molecular Formula The same as or a multiple of the empirical formula. It gives the exact number of atoms of each element in a compound.
How To Calculate Percent Composition By Mass Determine the mass of the individual element and divide by the molar mass of the compound
Combination Reactions Occur when two or more reactants combine to form one product
Decomposition Reaction Occur when one reactant is chemically broken down into two or more products.
Combustion Reactions Occur when a fuel and an oxidant (typically oxygen) react to form the products water and carbon dioxide (if the fuel is a hydrocarbon)
Displacement Reactions Occur when one or more atoms or ions of one compound are replaced with one or more atoms or ions of another compound
Single-displacement Reactions Occur when an ion of one compound is replaced with another element.
Double-displacement Reactions Occur when elements from two different compounds trade places with each other to form two new compounds.
Neutralization Reactions Reactions in which an acid reacts with a base to form a salt (and usually water)
Steps To Balance Chemical Equations Balance the least common atoms, balance the more common atoms (usually Hydrogen and Oxygen), and balance charge
Limiting Reagent The reactant which will be consumed first in a chemical reaction
Theoretical Yield Amount of product generated if all of the limiting reactant is consumed with no side reactions
Actual Yield Typically lower than the theoretical yield
Percent Yield Calculated by dividing the actual yield by the theoretical yield and converting to a percentage
-ous Endings Indicate: Lesser charge
-ic Endings Indicate: Greater charge
-ide Endings Indicate: Monatomic anions
-ite Ending For An Oxyanion Indicates: Contains a less amount of oxygen
-ate Ending For An Oxyanion Indicates: Contains a greater amount of oxygen
Hypo- Ending For Oxyanion Series With 2+ Members Is Given To Species with the fewest oxygens
Per- Ending For Oxyanion Series With 2+ Members Is Given To Species with the most oxygens
Hydrogen / bi- Ending For Polyatomic Ions Containing Hydrogen Indicate One hydrogen
Dihydrogen Ending For Polyatomic Ions Containing Hydrogen Indicate Two hydrogens
Ionic Charges Are Predictable By (Representative Elements): Group number and type of element (metal or nonmetal) for representative elements
Ionic Charges For Nonrepresentative Elements Are: Generally not predictable
Electrolytes contain equivalents of ions from molecules that dissociate in solution.
Solvation Degree of dissociation, this determines the strength of an electrolyte.
Eq. 4.1: Moles From Mass Moles = Mass of a sample / Molar mass
Eq. 4.2: Gram Equivalent Weight GEW = Molar mass / n. n = number of particles of interest produced or consumed per molecule of the compound in the reaction.
Eq. 4.3: Equivalents From Mass Equivalents = Mass of compound / Gram equivalent weight
Eq. 4.4: Molarity From Normality Molarity = Molar mass / n. n = number of protons, hydroxide ions, electrons, or ions produced or consumed by the solute.
Eq. 4.5: Percent Composition Percent composition = Mass of element in formula / Molar mass * 100%
Eq. 4.6: Percent Yield % Yield = Actual yield / Theoretical yield * 100%
Created by: SamB91