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Islamic A&A

Midterm Vocab

Arabesque Geometry and floral design
Epigraphy / Inscriptions Inscribing letters/words into a medium such as wood or marble
Stacco Plaster type 3D medium
Iconography representations of living being. Figurative Imagery
Haram Unlawful
Hispano-Moorish Muslim Spainish/ North African
Religious Architecture Mosques, graves, shrines
Secular Architecture Palaces, Houses
Military architecture Towers, Garrisons, moats, Warfare technology
Public Utility Bridges, fountains, libraries, roads, milestones
Pre-Islamic Arabia Before 610
Iconoclasm Opposition to religious use of images
Sharia Islamic Law
Hadith Prophetic teachings. Discusses banning of iconography
Quran Islamic Holy book. Makes no mention of art or art restrictions.
Masjid Mosque. One per neighborhood and used for daily prayers
Musallah/ musaila Open space out side of the city used for prayer
Jami' Large mosque inthe center of the city. Where large Friday prayer is conducted. Historically one per city and the most elaborate structure.
Mughatta Prayer hall in a mosque
Sahin Courtyard of a mosque
Minhret Tower from which the Imam calls daily prayer. Developed from the style of churches, but no religious base in texts. Different style depending on region and materials. No real logic for the style.
Musharabbiya Wooden separating device with elaborate arabesque designs. used to separate the mosque by gender or separate kings.
Maqsura Royal enclosure in the mosque by the mihab to separate the king for safety. Usually musharabbiya
Origins of Mosques In conquering new lands they needed a prayer space so they would convert other religious buildings into mosques. Original were very simple structures of palm, clay or even ash.
Fatuh The Conquering of new territories
Sacre-coeur Old church in Casablanca that is now an exhibit hall
Structural differences between Mosques and Churches Churches build up, Mosques build out Churches emphasize depth, Mosques emphasize width
Qibla Wall facing Mecca
Mihrab Niche in the Qibla wall to mark the direction. Most elaborate feature and help magnify the Imams voice.
Dikka Wooden platform in front of Mihrab to allow respondants to repeat after Imam for those in the back. Feature of Ottoman mosques.
Minbar Chair from which the Imam gives the Friday sermon. Is moveable in Hispano-Moorish, but fixed in Middle-Eastern
Marhribi Storage space to move the minbar into
Adhen Call to prayer
Haram Al-Sharif Temple mound/platform for the dome of the rock. The Noble Sacred Enclosure.
Isda' The night journey is the prophets assertion that gives the dome of the rock its importance
Hijra Migration from Mecca to Medina
Arcade Series of arches, columns and pillars
Column Round supprt structure
Pillar Square/rectangle support structure
Martyria Churches built around the tombs of saints
'Abd Al-Allik 691 Umayyad that commissioned the building of the dome. Hired Byzantine architects.
Insignia of Power (Emblem) Emblems of defeated empires displayed in the Dome
Al-Walid 706 Umayyad that commissioned the building of the Mosque of Damascus
Portigo U shaped structure the surrounds the great mosque. An extension of the mughatta
Aisles 3 parallel aisles in the Great Mosque parallel to Qibla
Axial nave Axial = on the center of the Qibla. Nave= perpendicular aisle
Raised Gable Transept Axial nave's 3D structure
Gable Triangle on roof made from a slope
Medinan Style Style of mosques with walls parallel to the Qibla
Hypostyle mosque Mosque style with series of walls perpendicular to the Qibla. The Great Mosque of Damascus has hypostyle.
Mosaics in the Great Mosque Iconoclastic mosaics with realistic landscape depictions. Has byzantine architectural depiction.
3 Interpretations of the Mosaics in the Great Mosque Pictures from conquest, depiction of paradise or phonographic attempt that never took off.
Official Palace In the center of the city attached to the Jami'
non-official private hoes outside the city not meant to be seen by the public.
salat daily prayer
Khutba sermon
calligraphy artistic writing
Mosque as egalitarian No separation based on class. But separation based on gender in some and separation of royalty.
Mosque as Iconoclastic No iconography
Mosque as Inward looking Courtyard for light an ventilation but no windows to the outside. Promotes privacy, quietness and separation from the outside world.
Garrison Towns Army camps that were built into make shift towns and then became permanent towns. Ex- Fustat (Became Cairo) Qayrawn, Tunsia
Reason for Maqsura The assassinations and violence of royals in Mosques.
Structure of the Dome Wooden to allow
Epigraphy in the Dome of The Rock Quranic quotes, Christological passages (about Jesus and Mary) but MISSING passages about the night journey. Insignias of defeated towns.
Church of St. John the Baptist The church that the Great Mosque of Damascus was built on top off. The body is still on the Mosque and christians can visit it.
Ambulatory Space in between arcades
Material in the Dome of the Rock Wooden Dome. Marble piers and columns. Bronze plaques on the tie-beams
Two decorative styles in the Dome of the Rock that influenced Islamic art non-realistic use of realistic shapes and anti-naturalistic combination of naturalistic forms.
The Great Mosque of Damascus Built by al-Walid. An entirely Muslim composition but was built on top of a cathedral to St.John the Baptist
Syrian Architecture the traditional elements of construction for the Great Mosque of Damascus are Syrian
Importance of the Great Mosque of Damscus's mihrab first concave ornate mihrab in a mosque
Origins of the mihrab used as embelishment in the prophets house. Symbolizes the place the first Imam stood.
Significance of the axial nave, mihrab, minbar and dome on the Great Mosque of Damascus They are some of the earliest known uses of these that influenced future art and mosque architecture.
Qasr al-Hayr East Acountry side palace charecterized by its large square shape, with six dwelling rooms, a mosque, an olive press and cordinal entrances.
Form and technique of Qasr al-Hayr East LArge square buildings with towers filled with rubble, high gates formed by half towers, space organized around a square portigoed court, polished skewed wall surfaces and skewed vaults.
Qasr Kharana Small country side palace in the country side of Jordan characterized by its small size, single entrance, courtyard, adn two floors of hals and rooms.
Qasr Kharana construction technique and influence Rubble and mortar technique that derives from Iraqi-Iranian sources. The fortifications and arror slits are for decoration.
Function of Qasr Kharana Puzzling and unsure because of location, but most likely a meeting place for princes.
Khirbat al-Mafjar An Umayyad palace characterized by a palace proper, a mosque and bath connected by a porticoed courtyard with a fountain. Large elaborately decorated bath
Mshatta unfinished umayyad mosque characterized by a large entrance complex (With mosque) , a courtyard, a throne room complex opening on the court all sest on an axis independant from theliving quarters.
Origins of Fortress like stucture in palaces not actually for protection. Following Syrian architecture
Form and function of palance baths copied from Roman Roman baths. Used for royal entertainment due to its large size and decoration and because bath structures were the hight of luxery
Techniques of paintings and sculptures in umayyad palaces fresco in a roman manner, Syrian stone carving, stucco sculpture , iconographic depictions
Qusayr little palace
Qusr palace
Themes of Palace iconography glorification of princes, cosmic symbolism, royal pastime
Characteristics of Umayyad sculpted ornament they develop independent to the architecture, created with simple geometric frames, variety in themes and motifs,
Created by: madikat
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