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MCAT Beh. Sci Ch. 4

QuestionAnswer
The Brain Processes Makes Decision About The Importance Of Various Stimuli Below: The level of conscious awareness
Information Processing Model States that the brain encodes, stores, and retrieves information much like a computer
Factors That Influence Cognitive Development Culture, genes, and environment
Piaget's Stages Of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational
Sensorimotor Stage Focuses on manipulating the environment to meet physical needs through circular reactions.
This Ends The Sensorimotor Stage: Object permanence
Preoperational Stage Focuses on symbolic thinking, egocentrism, and centration
Concrete Operational Stage Focuses on understanding the feelings of others and manipulating physical (concrete) objects
Formal Operational Stage Focuses on abstract though and problem solving
A Mild Level Of Cognitive Decline While Aging Is: Normal
Significant Changes In Cognition May: Signify an underlying disorder
Biological Factors That Affect Cognition Include: Organic brain disorders, genetic, and chromosomal conditions, metabolic derangements, and drgu use
Problem-solving Requires identification and understanding of the problem, generation of potential solutions, testing of potential solutions, and evaluation of results
Mental Set Pattern of approach for a given problem.
An Inappropriate Mental Set May: Negatively impact problem-solving
Types Of Problem-Solving Include: Trial-and-error, algorithms, deductive reasoning (deriving conclusions from general rules), and inductive reasoning (deriving generalizations from evidence)
Heuristics, Biases, Intuition, And Emotions May: Assist decision-making, but may also lead to erroneous or problematic decisions
Heuristics Shortcuts or rule of thumb used to make decisions
Biases Exist when an experimenter or decision-maker is unable to objectively evaluate information
Intuition A "gut feeling" regarding a particular decision. This can often be attributed to experience with similar situations.
Emotional State Often Plays: A role in decision-making
Gardner's Theory Of Multiple Intelligences Proposes seven areas of intelligence including linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal
Variations In Intellectual Ability Can: Be attributed to combinations of environment, education, and genetics
States Of Consciousness Include: Alertness, sleep, dreaming, and altered states of consciousness
Alertness State of being awake and able to think, perceive, process, and express information.
Beta And Alpha Waves: Predominate on Electroencephalography (EEG)
Stage 1 Of Sleep: Light sleep and is dominated by theta waves on EEG.
Stage 2 Of Sleep Slightly deeper and includes theta waves, sleep spindles, and K complexes.
Stage 3 And 4 Of Sleep Deep sleep (slow-wave sleep, SWS). Delta waves predominate on EEG.
Most Sleep Disorders Occur During: Stage 3 and 4 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep
Dreaming in SWS: Focuses on consolidating declarative memories.
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep Paradoxical sleep in which the mind appears close to awake on EEG but the person is asleep. Eye movements and body paralysis occur in this stage. Dreaming in REM focuses on consolidating procedural memories.
Sleep Cycle Approximately 90 minutes for adults. Normal cycle is: Stage 1-2-3-4-3-2-REM, although REM becomes more frequent toward the morning.
Changes In Light In The Evening Trigger Release Of: Melatonin by the pineal gland, which results in sleepiness
Cortisol Levels: Increase in the early morning and help promote wakefulness.
Circadian Rhythms Trend around a 24-hour day
Most Dreaming Occurs During: REM, but some dreaming occurs during other sleep stages.
Dyssomnias Insomnia, narcolepsy, sleep apnea, and sleep deprivation
Parasomnias Night terrors and sleepwalking (somnambulism)
Hypnosis State of consciousness in which individuals appear to be in control of their normal faculties but are in a highly suggestible state.
Hypnosis Is Often Used For: Pain control, psychological therapy, memory enhancement, weight loss, and smoking cessation
Meditation Involves a quieting of the mind and is often used for relief of anxiety. It has also played a role in many of the world's religions.
Consciousness-altering Drugs Include depressants, stimulants, opiates, and hallucinogens.
Depressants Include alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines. They promote or mimic GABA activity in the brain.
Stimulants Include amphetamines, cocaine, and ecstasy. They increase dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin concentration at the synaptic cleft
Opiates And Opioids Include heroin, morphine, opium, and prescription pain medications such as oxycodone and hydrocodone. They can cause death by respiratory depression.
Hallucinogens Include lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), peyote, mescaline, ketamine, and psilocybin-containing mushrooms.
Marijuana Has depressant, stimulant, and hallucinogenic effects.
Active Ingredient Of Marijuana: Tetrahydrocannabinol
Drug Addiction Is Mediated By The: Mesolimbic pathway, which includes the nucleus accumbens, medial forebrain bundle, and ventral tegmental area
Main Neurotransmitter In The Mesolimbic Pathway Dopamine
Selective Attention Allows one to pay attention to a particular stimulus while determining if additional stimuli in the background require attention.
Divided Attention Uses: Automatic processing to pay attention to multiple activities at one time
Phonology Actual sound of speech
Morphology The building blocks of words, such as rules for pluralization (-s in English), past tense (-ed) and so forth
Semantics The meaning of words
Syntax Rules dictating word order
Pragmatics Changes in language delivery depending on context
Nativist (Biological) Theory Explains language acquisition as being controlled by operant conditioning and reinforcement by parents and caregivers
Learning (Behaviorist) Theory Explains language acquisition as being controlled by operant conditioning and reinforcement by parents and caregivers.
Social Interactionist Theory Explains language acquisition as being caused by a motivation to communicate and interact with others
Whorfian (Linguistic Relativity) Hypothesis States that the lens through which we view and interpret the world is created by language
Speech Areas In The Brain Are Found In The Dominant Hemisphere, Which Is Usually The: Left Hemisphere
Broca's Area Controls the motor function of speech
Broca's Aphasia Caused by damage to the Broca's area. This is a nonfluent aphasia in which generating each word requires great effort.
Wernicke's Area Controls language comprehension
Wernicke's Aphasia Caused by damage to the Wernicke's area. This is a fluent, nonsensical aphasia with lack of comprehension.
Arcuate Fasciculus Connects Wernicke's area and Broca's area.
Conduction Aphasia Caused by damage to the Arcuate Fasciculus. This is marked by the inability to repeat words despite intact speech generation and comprehension.
Created by: SamB91