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MCAT Beh. Sci Ch. 3

QuestionAnswer
Habituation Process of becoming used to a stimulus
Dishabituation Can occur when a second stimulus intervenes, causing a resensitization to the original stimulus
Associative Learning A way of pairing together stimuli and responses or behaviors and consequences
Classical Conditioning An unconditioned stimulus that produces an instinctive, unconditioned response is paired with a neutral stimulus.
With repetition, the neutral stimulus becomes a: Conditioned stimulus that produces a conditioned response
Operant Conditioning Behavior is changed through the use of consequences
Reinforcement Increases the likelihood of a behavior
Punishment Decreases the likelihood of a behavior
Schedule Of Reinforcement Affects: The rate at which the behavior is perfomed. Schedules can be based either on a ratio of behavior to reward or on an amount of time, and can be either fixed or variable. Behaviors learned through variable-ratio schedules are the hardest to extinguish.
Observational Learning / Modeling Acquisition of behavior by watching others
Encoding Process of putting new information into memory
Encoding Can Be: Automatic or effortful
Semantic Encoding Is Stronger Than: Both acoustic and visual encoding
Sensory And Short-Term Memory Are: Transient and are based on neurotransmitter activity.
Working Memory Requires short-term memory, attention, and executive function to manipulate information.
Long-term Memory Requires elaborative rehearsal and is the result of increased neuronal connectivity.
Explicit (Declarative) Memory Stores fact and stories.
Implicit (Nondeclarative) Memory Stores skills and conditioning effects
Facts Are Stored Via: Semantic networks
Recognition Of Information Is Stronger Than: Recall
Retrieval Of Information Is Often Based On: Priming interconnected nodes of the semantic network.
Memories Can Be Lost Through Disorders Such As: Alzheimer's Disease, Korsakoff's Syndrome, or agnosia, decay, or interference
Memories Are Highly Subject To: Influence by outside information and mood both at the time of encoding and at recall.
Both Learning And Memory Rely On Changes In: Brain chemistry and physiology which depends on neuroplasticity, which decreases as we age.
Long-term Potentiation Responsible for the conversion of short-term to long-term memory. This is the strengthening of neuronal connections resulting from increased neurotransmitter release and adding of receptor sites.
Created by: SamB91