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MCAT Beh. Sci Ch. 2

QuestionAnswer
Sensation Conversion or transduction of physical electromagnetic, auditory, and other information from the internal and external environment into electrical signals in the nervous system.
Perception Processing of sensory information to make sense of its significance
Sensory Receptors Nerves that respond to stimuli and trigger electrical signals
Sensory Neurons Are Associated With: Sensory Ganglia
Sensory Ganglia Collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system.
Sensory Stimuli Are Transmitted To: Projection Areas in the brain
Projection Areas Further analyze sensory input
Common Sensory Receptors Include: Photoreceptors, hair cells, nociceptors, thermoreceptors, osmoreceptors, olfactory receptors, and taste receptors
Threshold Minimum stimulus that causes a change in signal transduction
Absolute Threshold Minimum of stimulus energy that is needed to activate a sensory system.
Threshold Of Conscious Perception The minimum of stimulus energy that will create a signal large enough in size and long enough in duration to be brought into awareness.
Difference Threshold Or Just-Noticeable Difference (JND) Minimum distance in magnitude between two stimuli before one can perceive this difference.
Weber's Law States that the jnd for a stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus, and that this proportion is constant over most of the range of possible stimuli.
Signal Detection Theory Refers to the effects of nonsensory factors, such as experiences, motives, and expectations on perception of stimuli.
Signal Detection Experiments Allow Us To Look At: Response bias
Four Possible Outcomes For Signal Detection Experiments Hits, misses, false alarms, or correct negatives.
Adaptation Decrease in response to a stimulus over time.
Eye Organ specialized to detect light in the form of photons
Cornea Gathers and filters incoming light
Iris Divides The Front Of The Eye Into: The anterior and posterior chamber
The Iris Contains Two Muscles: The dilator, and the constrictor pupillae which open and close the pupil.
Lens Refracts incoming light to focus it on the retina
The Lens Is Held In Place By: Suspensory ligaments connected to the ciliary muscle.
The Cilary Body Produces: Aqueous humor, which drains through the canal of Schlemm
The Retina Contains: Rods and conese
Rods Detect light and dark
Cones (Three Forms) Short, medium, and long wavelength, which are used to detect colors.
Retina Contains Mostly Cones In The: Macula
Macula Corresponds to central visual fields
Center Of The Macula Is The: Fovea, which contains only cones.
Rods And Cones Synapse On: Bipolar cells, which synapse on: Ganglion Cells
Horizontal And Amacrine Cells Integrate signals from ganglion cells, and edge sharpening
The Bulk Of The Eye Is Supported By The: Vitreous on the inside, and the sclera and choroid on the outside.
The Visual Pathway Starts From The Eye And Travels Through The: Optic nerves, optic chasm, optic tracts, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus, and the visual radiations to get to the visual cortex.
Optic Chiasm Contains: Fibers crossing from the nasal side of the retina (temporal visual fields) of both eyes
Visual Radiations Run Through The: Temporal and parietal lobes
Visual Cortex Is In: The occipital lobe
Parallel Processing The ability to simultaneously analyze and combine information regarding color, shape, and motion
Color Is Detected By: Cones
Shape Is Detected By: Parvocellular Cells, with high spatial resolution and low temporal resolution
Motion Is Detected By: Magnocellular cells, with low spatial resolution and high temporal resolution.
Three Parts Of The Ear: Outer, middle, and inner ear
Outer Ear Pinna (auricle), external auditory canal, and tympanic membrane
Middle Ear Consists of the ossicles: malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup)
The Footplate Of The Stapes Rests in: The oval window of the cochlea.
Eustachian Tube Connects the middle ear to the nasal cavity.
Inner Ear Contains The: Bony labyrinth, within which is the membranous labyrinth
The Bony Labyrinth Is Filled With: Perilymph
The Membranous Labyrinth Is Filled With: Endolymph
The Membranous Labyrinth Consists Of: Cochlea which detects sound, utricle and saccule which detects linear acceleration, and semicircular canals which detect rotational acceleration
The Auditory Path Starts From The Cochlea And Travels Through: The vestibulocochlear nerve and medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) of the thalamus to get to the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe
Sound Information To The: Superior olive, which localizes the sound
Sound Information Also Projects To The: Inferior colliculus, which is involved in the startle reflex.
Smell Detection of volatile or aerosolized chemicals by the olfactory chemoreceptors (olfactory nerves) in the olfactory epithelium
The Olfactory Pathway Starts From The Olfactory Nerves And Travels Through: The olfactory bulb and olfactory tract to get to higher-order brain areas such as the limbic system
Pheromones Chemicals given off by animals that have an affect on social, foraging, and sexual behavior in other members of that species.
Taste Detection of dissolved compounds by taste buds in papillae
Five Modalities Of Taste Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (savory)
Somatosensation Refers to the touch modalities: pressure, vibration, pain, and temperature
Two-Point Threshold Min. distance necessary between two points of stimulation on the skin that the points will be felt as two distinct stimuli
Physiological Zero Normal temperature of the skin to which objects are compare to determine if they feel warm or cold
Nociceptors Responsible for pain perception
Gate Theory Of Pain States that pain sensation is reduced when other somatosensory signals are present.
Kinesthetic Sense (Proprioception) Refers to the ability to tell where one's body is in three-dimensional space
Bottom-up (Data-Driven) Processing Recognition of objects by parallel processing and feature detection. It is slower, but less prone to mistakes.
Top-down (Conceptually Driven) Processing Recognition of an object by memories and expectations with little attention to detail. It is faster but more prone to mistakes
Gestalt Principles Ways that the brain can infer missing parts of a picture when a picture is incomplete
Law Of Proximity States that elements close to one another tend to be perceived as a unit
Law of Similarity States that objects that are similar appear to be grouped together
Law of Good Continuation States that elements that appear to follow the same pathway tend to be grouped together
Subjective Contours Perception of nonexistent edges in figures, based on surrounding visual cues.
Law Of Closure States that when a space is enclosed by a group of lines, it is perceived as a complete or closed line
Law Of Pr├Ągnanz States that perceptional organization will always be as regular, simple, and symmetric as possible
Created by: SamB91