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MCAT Beh. Sci Ch. 1

Neuropsychology Study of the connection between the nervous system and behavior. It most often focuses on the functions of various brain regions.
Three Types Of Neurons Sensory (afferent), motor (efferent), interneurons.
Reflex Arcs Use the ability of interneurons in the spinal cord to relay information to the source of stimuli while simultaneously routing it to the brain.
Central Nervous System (CNS) Includes brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Includes cranial and spinal nerves
PNS Divisions Include: Somatic (voluntary) and autonomic (automatic) divisions.
Further Divisions Of The Autonomic Nervous System Parasympathetic (rest-and-digest) and sympathetic (fight-or-flight) branches.
Three Subdivisions Of The Brain Hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
Hindbrain Contains the cerebellum, medulla oblongata, and reticular formation
Midbrain Contains the inferior and super colliculi
Forebrain Contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, limbic system, and cerebral cortex.
Methods Of Studying The Brain Include: Studying humans / animals with lesions, electrical stimulation, and activity recording (ex: electroencephalography EEG, and regional cerebral blood flow)
Thalamus Relay station for sensory information.
Hypothalamus Maintains homeostasis and integrates with the endocrine system through the hypophyseal portal system that connects it to the anterior pituitary.
Basal Ganglia Smoothen movements and help maintain postural stability.
Limbic System Contains the septal nuclei, amygdala, and hippocampus, controls emotion and memory.
Septal Nuclei Involved with feelings of pleasure, pleasure-seeking behavior, and addiction.
Amygdala Controls fear and aggression
Hippocampus Consolidates memories and communicates with other parts of the limbic system through an extension called the fornix.
Four Lobes Of The Cerebral Cortex Frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal
Frontal Lobe Controls executive function, impulse control, long-term planning, motor function, and speech production
Parietal Lobe Controls sensations of touch, pressure, temperature, and pain, spatial processing, orientation, and manipulation
Occipital Lobe Controls visual processing
Temporal Lobe Controls sound processing, speech perception, memory, and emotion
Left Cerebral Hemisphere's Typical Function Language
Neurotransmitters Chemicals released by neurons to carry a signal to another neuron or effector (a muscle fiber or a gland)
Acetylcholine Used by the somatic nervous system to move muscles, and by the parasympathetic nervous system and the central nervous system for alertness.
Dopamine Maintains smooth movements and steady posture.
Endorphins And Enkephalins Acts as natural painkillers.
Epinephrine And Norepinephrine Maintain wakefulness and alertness, and mediate fight-or-flight responses.
Note About How Epinephrine And Norepinephrine Tend To Act Epinephrine tends to act as a hormone, and norepinephrine tends to act more classically like a neurotransmitter.
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Acts as a brain stabilizer.
Serotonin Modulates mood, sleep patterns, eating patterns, and dreaming.
How The Endocrine System Is Tied To The Nervous System Through the hypothalamus, and the anterior pituitary and a few other hormones.
Cortisol Stress hormone released by the adrenal cortex.
Testosterone And Estrogen Mediate libido (testosterone also increases aggressive behavior). Both are released by the adrenal cortex. In males, the testes also produce testosterone. In females, the ovaries also produce estrogen.
Epinephrine And Norepinephrine Released by the adrenal medulla and cause physiological changes associated with the sympathetic nervous system.
Nature Vs. Nature Classic debate regarding the relative contributions of genetics (nature) and environment (nurture) to an individual's traits.
Family Studies Look at the relative frequency of a trait within a family compared to the general population.
Twin Studies Compare concordance rates between monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal) twins
Adoption Studies Compare similarities between adopted children and their adoptive parents, relative to similarities with their biological parents.
The Nervous Systems Develops Through Nerulation, In Which: The notochord stimulates overlying ectoderm to fold over, creating a neural tube topped with neural crest cells.
Neural Tube Becomes: The central nervous system (CNS)
Neural Crest Cells: Spread out throughout the body, differentiating into many different tissues.
Primitive Reflexes Exist in infants and should disappear with age. Most of these serve a protection role.
Note About Primitive Reflexes That Reappear This could be due to certain nervous system disorders.
Rooting Reflex The infant turns his or her head toward anything that brushes the cheek.
Moro Reflex The infant extends the arms, then slowly retracts them and cries in response to a sensation of falling.
Babinski Reflex The big toe is extended and the other toes fan in response to the brushing of the sole of the foot
Grasping Reflex Infant grabs anything put into his or her hand.
Development Milestones Gross and fine motor abilities progress head to toe and core to periphery. Social skills shift from parent-oriented to self-oriented to other-oriented. Language skills become increasingly complex.
Created by: SamB91
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