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American History I

TermDefinition
French and Indian War 1754 to 1763; colonial extension of 7 Years War that ravaged Europe 1756 to 1763; bloodiest American war in 18th Century; involved people on 3 continents including Caribbean; product of imperial struggle,
French and Indian War (2) clash between French and English over colonial territory and wealth; began in Nov 1753 when Washington when on mission in Ohio region to deliver message to French captain demanding French troops withdraw from the territory; demand rejected;
French and Indian War (3)- Washington Washington received authorization to build fort near Pittsburgh; unsuccessful due to French presence in area; Washington had to give up fort which lead to small battles;
French and Indian War (4) - Braddock sent by British to oversee colonial forces; on his way to remove French from Fort Duquesne was surprised by French and lost his life in the battle.
French and Indian War (5) - Oswego and Ticonderoga 1756 - 1759, French dominated the battlefield due to being outnumbered, defeated English in battles at Fort Oswego and Ticonderoga; Fort Henry battle ended in massacre of British soldiers by Indians allied with the French
French and Indian War (6) - Lord William Pitt 1758, British began making peace with important Indian allies and under the direction of Pitt began adapting Indian war strategies to fit the territory and landscape of the American frontier.
French and Indian War (7) - French defeat at Quebec French were defeated in Sept 1769 in Quebec
Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the French and Indian War and the European 7 Years War, set terms by which French would capitulate; France was forced to surrender all of their American possessions to British and Spanish.
Aftermath of French and Indian War results effectively ended French political and cultural influence in North America; England gained massive amounts of land and vastly strengthened its hold on the continent; Badly eroded relationship between England and Native Americans;
Aftermath of French and Indian War (colonies) Effect of the war played a major role in the worsening relationship between England and its colonies that eventually led into the Revolutionary War
Reasons for French and Indian War imperialism; French and English competing for land and trading rights in North America, especially Ohio Valley
Aftermath of French and Indian War (Britain and colonies) British ended policy of salutary neglect, attempting to keep colonials under a more watchful eye; British raised taxes in an effort to pay off the war; colonies were discontent
Aftermath of French and Indian War (British and Native Americans) British retributed against Natives who fought on side of the French by cutting off their supplies and forcibly compelling tribes to obey rules of the new mother country; Pontiac's War
Cherokee, Catawba, Creeks, Choctaw, and Chickasaw tribes inhabited mountainous region between the French and British lands in North America, and attempted to maintain their autonomy by trading with both nations
British expansion in North America 1727, British constructed trading fort, Oswego, on banks of Lake Otantario
New France and Ohio Valley 1762, Duquesne assumed governorship of New France, specific instructions to secure possession of Ohio Valley
Native Americans and French and Indian War nations that lived in the region played a pivotal role in both the instigation and the outcome of the conflict; Iroquois were good at playing English and French against each other; guerrilla warfare
Fort George/Duquesne/Pitt centrally located fort in Pittsburgh, changed hands many times during the war; site of England's first disastrous battle in which Braddock lost his life.
Fort Necessity hastily constructed in Great Meadows; site of Washington's first defeat in 1754
Fort Henry site of most notorious massacre in colonial history; located near Hudson River; fell to the French in 1767
Louisbourg important city on east coast of Canada; French stronghold of arms and supplies
Ticonderoga major French fort and city north of Albany, NY; British failed repeatedly to seize it; finally succeeded in 1769
Timeline 1 (French and Indian War) 1748: King George's War 1754: first battle; Washington defeats French in surprise attack; Fort Necessity built 1754: French take Fort Necessity 1754: Washington resigns 1755: British take Nova Scotia 1755: Battle of Lake George
Timeline 2 (French and Indian War) 1756: Declaration of War 1756: Fort Oswego captured by French 1757: Fort Henry taken by French 1758: Fort Ticonderoga taken by French 1758: British take Louisbourg 1758: British take Fort Duquesne 1759: British take Fort Ticonderoga
Timeline 3 (French and Indian War) 1759: British win battle of Quebec 1760: British take Montreal 1760: functional end of war 1763: Treaty of Paris signed 1763: Pontiac's War (Ottowa chief)
Stamp Act Congress 1773; first pan-colonial meeting of political leaders
Committee of Correspondence organized by Samuel Adams; made up system of communication between patriot leaders in towns in New England and other colonies; provided political organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament
Declaratory Act Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases; passed after repeal of Stamp Act
Quartering Act 1765; required colonial assemblies to pay for certain supplies for troops stationed within their respective colonies; 1767 New York refused to comply, provoking Parliament to threat to null all laws passed in NY legislature
Stamp Act required Americans to buy special watermarked paper for newspapers and all legal documents; violators faced jury-less trials in vice-admiralty courts; provoked first organized response to British impositions
Sugar Act lowered the duty on foreign-produced molasses in attempt to discourage smuggling; Americans could export many commodities only if they passed through British ports first; heavy duty on Madiera wine from Portugal
Revenue Act (Townshend Duties) 1767; taxed glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea entering colonies;
Virginia Resolves response to Stamp Act, Patrick Henry persuaded VA House of Burgesses to adopt several resolutions that denied Parliament's right to tax colonies
Pontiac's War Ottawa leader who led a series of attacks against the British forts near the Greak Lakes, 8 of which he successfully sacked
Boston Massacre 1770, Attucks led a crowd to demonstrate against the customs agents;
Stamp Act Congress 1765, representatives of 9 colonial assemblies met in NYC at Stamp Act Congress; colonies agreed widely on Parliament not taxing anyone outside Great Britain and could not deny anyone a fair trial
Timeline 4 (1700s) 1763: Treaty of Paris signed 1763: Pontiac's War begins 1763: Proclamation of 1763 1764: Sugar Act 1765: Stamp Act 1765: Quartering Act 1765: VA Resolves 1765: Stamp Act Congress 1766: Stamp Act repealed 1767: Townshend duties enacted
Proclamation of 1763 land transactions made to west of Appalachian crest would be governed by the British government rather than by the colonies
Timeline 5 (1700s) 1768: Troops land in Boston 1770: Boston Massacre 1770: Townshend duties repealed
Suspension Act 1767; suspended the NY assembly for not enforcing the Quartering Act
Tea Act 1773; granted financially troubled British East India Company a trade monopoly on the tea exported to American colonies which led to the Dec 16 1773 dumpting of tea (Boston Tea Party)
Coercive/Intolerable Acts 1774, shut down Boston Harbor until the British East India Company had been fully reimbursed for the tea
Quebec Act granted more rights to French Canadian Catholics and extended French Canadian territory south to the western borders of NY and PA
Concord 1775, part of British occupation force in Boston marched to Concord, MA to seize a colonial militia arsenal; militia from Lexington and Concord intercepted them; short heard around the world
Second Continental Congress Olive Branch petition, professed their love and loyalty to the king and begged him to address their grievances; king rejected them and declared them in state of rebellion
John Adams lawyer; defended British soldiers accused of murdering 5 civilians during Boston Massacre; delegate from Mass in Continental Congresses where he rejected proposals for reconciliation with Britain
George Grenville prime minster of Parliament; responsible for enforcing the Navigation Act, passing of Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Currency Act, and Quartering Act; assumed colonists would be willing to bear a greater tax burden after Britain invested so much protecting them
Thomas Hutchinson governor of Mass; forbade the British East India Company's tea ships from leaving Boston Harbor until they had unloaded their cargo, prompting disguised colonists to destroy the tea in the Boston Tea Party
Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence
Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense
Albany Congress congress convened by British officials in 1754 promoting a unification of British colonies in NA for security and defense against the French
Battle of Lexington and Concord 1775, opened the Revolutionary war; militiamen fought back and eventually forced the British to retreat, harrying the redcoats on the route back to Boston using guerrilla tactics; significant turning point b/c open military no reconciliation possible
Battle of Saratoga 1777, British defeat that was a major turning point in the Revolutionary war; convinced the French to ally with the US and enter war against Britain
First Continental Congress 1774, delegates from 12 of the 13 colonies (GA didn't attend) in order to protest the Intolerable Acts; created an association to organize and supervise a boycott on all British goods
Mercantilism economic theory of the 1700s; nations should amass wealth in order to increase their power
Declaration of Independence 1776, assisted the Second Continental Congress in obtaining aid from foreign countries; clearly outlined the history of abuses the colonists suffered under British rule since the end of the French and Indian War in 1763
Articles of Confederation established a loose federation of states that all essentially acted as individual republics; the balance of power lay heavily in the states favor and the national government was far too weak to perform even its basic duties
1780s government under Articles of Confederation unable to successfully levy and collect taxes, unable to carry out the basic requirements of diplomacy
Shay's Rebellion alerted many Americans to the weakness of the current national government
Constitutional Convention met in PA and determined that it was in the nation's best interest to create an entirely new framework of government
Constitution set out the tripartite system of government in place today; created a bicameral legislature consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, established a judicial branch
Federalists wanted a government that had broad powers
Articles of Confederation (2) granted few powers to the central government and left most powers up to the individual states; replaced by the Constitution in 1789
Connecticut Comrpomise established equal representation for all states in the Senate and proportional representation by population in the House of Representatives
Constitution 1789, created a strong central government with broad judicial, legislative, and executive powers
Jay's Treaty provided for the removal of British troops from American land, and avoided the outbreak of war with Britain
NJ Plan alternative to VA Plan; favored small states in that it proposed a unicameral Congress with equal representation for each state
NW Ordinance 1787, defined process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the NW territory; forbade slavery but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood was established
3/5th Clause allowed 3/5th of all slaves to be counted as people
VA Plan proposed the creation of a bicameral legislature with representation in both houses proportional to population
Annapolis Convention originally planned to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from 5 states met in 1786, suggested a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation
Constitutional Convention Response to Annapolis convention; Congress called states to send delegates to PA to amend the Article; 7187 except RI and drafted an entirely new framework of government which gave greater power to the central government
Shay's Rebellion 1786, West MA farmers organized in attempt to shut down 3 county courthouses through violent means in order to prevent foreclosure proceedings; easily put down; alerted many to weakness of government under the Articles
Whiskey Rebellion high excise tax, 1794; Washington led a force of militiamen to crush the rebellion
Second Continental Congress 1775 - 1781; produced Declaration of Independence, drafted Articles of Confederation, served as unofficial national government, managed the war effort, finances and foreign affairs while Articles were debated
Problems Under the Articles most state currencies had become useless due to wartime inflation, Congress printed its own continental dollars to keep the economy alive; Congress could not raise enough money from states; most states ignored Congress attempts to resolve interstate probs
Created by: ilk0710