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JAH--Chapter 18

JAHKMLHS C18 An Emerging World Power

TermDefinition
bayonet constitution The new plan of government which in 1887 members of the Hawaiian League presented King Kalakaua and which he signed the under threat of the use of force
Sanford B. Dole In 1893 with the help of U. S. Marines, this man removed the Queen from power, proclaimed Hawaii a republic, and requested annexation by the United States.
Victoriano Huerta In 1913 this man overthrew Madero, imprisoned him, and had him executed
William McKinley In July 1898 this expansionist President signed a joint congressional resolution annexing the Hawaiian Islands.
Gentlemen’s Agreement In this agreement the San Francisco School Board agreed to end its segregation policy and Japan agreed to limit the emigration of its citizens to the United States.
Boxer Rebellion In this event Chinese nationalist of the Righteous and Harmonious Society massacred numerous Western missionaries and Chinese converts and laid siege to the foreign community in Peking.
Tampico incident In this incident crew members of the USS Dolphin went ashore for supplies, were arrested by soldiers loyal to Victoriano Huerta, and quickly released.
Hay-Herrán Treaty This agreement was made with Columbia for a canal across the Panamanian isthmus. However, the Columbian senate thought they could get more money and refused the agreement.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty This agreement with Panama gave the United States a permanent grant of a 10-mile-wide strip of land for a Canal Zone.
Platt Amendment This attachment to a U.S. Army appropriations bill allowed the United States "the right to intervene for the preservation of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty..."
Teller Amendment This attachment to the declaration of war stated that the United States proclaimed that the United States would not establish permanent control over Cuba.
Treaty of Portsmouth This brought about an end to the war between Japan and Russia. Because of the role played by President Theodore Roosevelt, the United States became a significant force in world diplomacy.
Rough Riders This cavalry unit was a mix of troops ranging from Ivy League athletes to glee-club singers to Texas Rangers and Indians.
Frederic Remington This correspondent was sent to Cuba to cover the Spanish holding Cuban prisoners in “death camps” and to draw pictures of Spanish atrocities
Porfirio Díaz This dictator ruled Mexico with an iron fist for 35 years, from 1876 to 1911. Although the Mexican economy boomed, millions of peons labored in virtual slavery.
de Lôme letter This document stolen from the Spanish ambassador to Washington described McKinley as “weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd.”
Battle of Veracruz This event occurred because Wilson ordered the U. S. Navy to seize the port so that a German ship loaded with weapons for Huerta would be unable to offload them.
Emilio Aguinaldo This exiled rebel returned to the Philippines during the Spanish American War and assisted in ousting the Spaniards. He became the leading insurrectionist against the Americans after the war.
William Howard Taft This future president, as governor of the Philippines, extended limited self-rule and ordered the construction of schools, roads, and bridges.
John J. Pershing This general spent 11 months chasing Pancho Villa, pioneering the use of trucks and aircraft in military expeditions.
Valeriano Weyler This governor of Cuba understood the problems in the fighting the insurgents in Cuba. His “Reconcentration Policy” to separate peasants from rebels in Cuba failed horribly.
imperialism This is a practice by a stronger nation to attempt to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, and/or militarily.
Alfred T. Mahan This man asserted that many great nations owed their greatness to powerful navies; therefore, he urged the United States to build a modern fleet.
José Martí This man dedicated himself exclusively to planning and organizing what became Cuba's third war of independence. He died in battle shortly after the war began. He is known in Cuba as “the father of the Cuban Revolution.”
George W. Goethals This man finished coordinating the construction of the Panama Canal after John F. Stevens resigned. He is called the “Genius of the Panama Canal.”
Emiliano Zapata This man led an army of Native American peasants during the revolution. He wanted land to be returned to the native peoples.
Francisco “Pancho” Villa This man led the first armed invasion of the continental U. S. since the war of 1812 when he invaded and burned Columbus, New Mexico.
George Dewey This man led the naval action during Spanish-American War at Manila, Philippine Islands, 1 May 1898. He liquidated the Spanish Fleet and installations in the Manila Harbor without loss of men to the US Fleet.
Matthew Perry This man sailed a fleet of warships into present-day Tokyo Bay, Japan and negotiated a treaty that opened Japan to trade with America.
William C. Gorgas This man successfully maintained a zone in which mosquitoes could not exist around the canal workers as they progressed across the narrow Isthmus of Panama.
Francisco Madero This man was arrested on charges of urging rebellion and insulting the authorities during the 1910 elections in Mexico. He eventually escaped, led a revolution, and was elected president in 1911.
John Hay This man was Lincoln’s private secretary. He made major contributions by forging an "Open Door" policy with China, advancing American interests during the Boxer Rebellion, and negotiating the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty.
Philippe Bunau-Varilla This man, together with William Nelson Cromwell, became the lobbyist for the French company that held rights to the Panama route.
Grover Cleveland This President condemned American complicity in the overthrow of the rightful ruler of Hawaii and withdrew from Senate consideration the treaty for annexation.
Roosevelt Corollary This Presidential order stated, “When it seemed necessary to protect an American state from European intervention, the United States itself would intervene.
William Randolph Hearst This publisher of the Journal refused to carry news from Spanish sources, declaring only rebel informants could be trusted.
Joseph Pulitzer This publisher was haunted for the rest of his life by the conscious disregard for the facts in his paper the World in the times leading up to the Spanish American War.
Open Door Policy This series of memoranda pledged the imperial powers to respect the territorial integrity of China and to grant equal trading rights in their areas of control.
Battle of Kettle Hill This site in Cuba became famous when Roosevelt led his volunteers past the regulars who refused to advance and charged. The attackers cut their way through barbed wire fences and drove the Spaniards out of their trenches.
reconcentration This Spanish policy during the Cuban insurrection moved many civilians into barbed-wire camps so that they couldn’t aid the rebels.
Foraker Act This statute established that the United States would appoint Puerto Rico’s governor and the upper house of its legislature. Puerto Rican voters would elect the lower house.
yellow journalism This term became synonymous with the use of melodrama, romance, and hyperbole to sell millions of newspapers.
protectorate This term defines a relationship of guardianship and partial control assumed by a superior power over a dependent country or region.
concession This term refers to a grant for a piece of land in exchange for a promise to use the land for a specific purpose.
sphere of influence This term refers to an area of economic and political control exerted by one nation over another nation or other nations.
extractive economies This term refers to the uses of colonies for the source of raw materials which are removed and shipped to the home country.
U. S. S. Maine This vessel was sent to Cuba to protect and evacuate Americans if a dangerous flare-up should occur and blew up in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898, with the loss of 260 sailors.
Russo-Japanese War This was a clash between two expanding empires feature the Battle of Tsushima in which Admiral Togo completely destroyed his enemies fleet forcing the enemy to begin to seek peace.
Mexican Revolution This was a series of uprisings between 1919 and 1920 which saw the rise and fall of several leaders.
dollar diplomacy This was the derisive term given to Taft’s foreign policy that would maintain orderly societies abroad through increased American investment in foreign economies.
moral diplomacy This way of dealing with the nations of the world condemned imperialism and endorsed democracy and peace.
Liliuokalani This woman, a strong nationalist, opposed U. S. control of the islands and sought to reduce the power of foreign merchants.
Created by: jim.haferman