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Microanatomy II

What are the three main functions of respiratory system? 1. Absorption of oxygen from air and removal of carbon dioxide from tissues. 2.Perception of odors, smells and flavors 3.production of sound and speech
What are the two parts of the respiratory system? 1. upper respiratory tract that channels air from outside into the lungs 2.lower respiratory system that allows interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Components of upper respiratory system and funtion mouth, nose, sinuses,nasopharynx, pharynx,larynx,bronchi and bronchioles.Function is to filter, warm and moisture air
Components of lower respiratory system and funtion terminal bronchioles,alveolar ducts, and alveoli with their adjacent capillaries.Oxygen is absorbed and transferred to blood stream, and carbon dioxide is removed from it
muscular membrane that separates thoracic from abdominal cavity diaphragm
Type of epithelial tissue covering the nasal passages outer nasal passage has non-keratinizing squamous epithelium,deeper into the nasal passages and sinuses this changes to ciliated pseudo stratified columnar epithelium
what is the Waldeyer's ring nasopharyngeal and palatine tonsils
trachea tissue description fibrous connective tissue consisting of 15-20 C ring shaped of cartilage lined with ciliated pseudo stratified columnar epithelium and small number of goblet cells
Primary bronchus structure compared to trachea: respiratory epithelium is less tall, contains more elastin, less Seromucinous glands,cartilage is flattened
Bronchiole 1mm diameter, epithelium is ciliated columnar cells and few goblet cells, terminal and respiratory bronchioles, goblet cells are replaced by Clara cells.wall composed of smooth muscle
Function of Clara cells produce one component of surfactant, act as steam cells, contain enzymes that detoxify noxious substances
alveoli function and composition site of gaseous exchange. Each alveoulus consist of a round pocket lined by pneumocyte I or II
pneumocyte I description thin cells with large surface area covered by a thin layer of surfactant
Where occur gas exchange across the wall of alveoli
what are dust cells macrophages with their ingested particles located in surrounding supporting vessels of the lung
what is the bronchial vascular system Bronchial vascular system: Bronchial arteries supply oxygenated blood to the bronchial tree from the main bronchi down to the terminal bronchioli
Pulmonary vascular system this is the gaseous exchange system.Deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle to the capillary bed of alveoli where gas exchange occurs. Oxygenated blood drains into branches of pulmonary vein and from here is delivered to left atrium of heart
GI tract has four functional layers mucose, submucose, muscularis propria, and adventitia
GI mucosa description made up of three components:epithelium, supporting lamina propria, and a thin smooth muscle layer
GI submucosa description loose collagenous supporting tissue for the mucosa and contains larger blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves
GI muscularis propria smooth muscle that is arranged as inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer
Adventitia outer layer of loose supporting tissue, conducts major vessels nerves and adipose tissue
Interstitial cells of Cajal pacemaker cells that initiate contraction of smooth muscle cells
Basic mucosal forms in GI tract 1.Protective 2.Secretory 3. Absorptive, 4. Absorptive/Protective
Protective form description found in mouth, oesophagous and anal canal. Surface epithelium is stratified squamous
Secretory form description Occurs only in stomach, mucose consist of long closely packed tubular gland
Absorptive form description Typical of small intestine. Mucose is arrange into finger-like projections with short glands called crypts
Absorptive/Protective form description Lines the large intestine
Brunner's glands Theses are some crypts that extend through muscularis mucosae in duodenum
Anatomically division of stomach Cardia, fundus,body and pylorus
Gastric glands contain a mixed population of cells surface mucous cells, neck mucous cells,parietal or oxyntic cells, chief peptic or zymogenic cells, neuroendocrine cells, and stem cells
surface mucous cells secrete protective bicarbonate into deeper layers of surface mucous coat
neck mucous cells these cells have larger secretory granules and more polyribosomes than surface mucous cells
parietal or oxyntic cells secrete gastric acid as well as intrinsic factor (glycoprotein necessary for absortion of Vitamin B12 in ileum
chief peptic or zymogenic cells pepsine secreting cells
neuroendocrine cells secrete gastrin, somatostatin, serotonine, and secretin etc
small intestine has three segments: duodenum, jejunum and ileum
small intestine wall composition mucose, submucose, muscularis , and serose
cells lining small bowel Absorptive columnar cells known as enterocytes and mucous producing goblet cells
define plicae extensively folded circular arrangements of mucose and submucose of small intestine
crypts of Lieberkhun small depresions of the mucose that go deeper into lamina propria in the ileum
principal cells in crypts stem cell,
Paneth cells secrete some enzymes
Peyer's patches aggregations of lymphoid tissue
Brunner;s glands contain large cells secreting mucous and a glycoprotein that act to buffer the gastric secretion
Large intestine divided into segments: cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon,descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum
large intestine structure similar to other parts of GI tract, cells lining the wall are composed for absorptive and mucous secreting cellls
Liver functions: synthesis of complex molecules from simple substances, breakdown of ingested toxic substances and bile secretion
microanatomically liver consist of two parts: 1.parenchyma: ephitilal in origen and have the hepatocytes that perform the work of the liver and 2. stroma: give liver shape and structure
hepatic lobules hepatocytes arranged in sheets and form hexagons, each lobule have a central vein, where three lobules adjoin have the portal tract which consist of supportive tissue, a branch of hepatic artery,a branch of portal vein, lymphatic vessel, and a bile duct
Glisson's capsule sheet of dense supportive tissue that covers the liver
liver blood supply it is dual: one from the hepatic artery, delivers oxygenated blood from the heart. the second one from the hepatic portal that carries partially oxygenated blood, it comes from the GI and and the spleen; therefore,it has the nutrients & Hb waste products
Kupfer cells derived from monocytes, are the phagocitic cells of liver
gall bladder function store and concentrate secretions from liver
mucose of gall bladder has a ephitelial lining of tall columnar cells with microvilli, ephitelial cells are separated from the lamina propria for a delicate basement membrane.Lamina propria has loose supportive tissue
pancreatic acinar cells secrete precursor forms of enzymes: trypsinogen,lipases,peptidase, amylase and estearase
pancreatic enzime production is controlled for two enzymes which are produced by neoroendocrine cells in the small intestine secretin and cholecystokinin
function of enzyme secretin influences the production of watery secretions containing high labels of bicarbonate ions
cholecystokinin function controls production of digestive enzyme precursor
microscopically the pancreas shows features of tubo acinar gland in low power, the division into lobules is easy to identify.Lobules contain certain number of acini. Each acinus has a single layer of secretory ephitelial cells sorrounding a tiny central lumen.
functions of urinary system production, transport, storage and expulsion of aqueous solutions of metabolic waste products
urinary system components two kidneys, two ureters, urinary bladder and the urethra
in a cross section of the kidneys three structures will be seen: an outer layer of red dark cortex,an inner layer of striated medulla and a system of pale coloured dilated structures connected to the hilum
functional part of the kidney nephron
two components of the nephron -glomerolus consisting of turf of capillaries -cortical and medullary portions of renal tubules
cortex has mainly the glomeruli, the parenchyma consists of epithelial lined tubules, glomerula structures are associated with basement membrane and lymphatics. All of this packed very tighly, leavn a small space for supportive tissue.
Medulla consist of tubules, blood vessels and lymphatics, but increased amount of supportive tissue.
two types of cells in medulla A spindle shaped cell that is probably responsable for producing interstitial extracelullar substance and other that has stellate cytoplasm and is probbly of neuroendocrine nature and is associated with blood pressure control
Juxtaglomerular apparatus located in cortex, adjacent to afferent and efferent arterioles. JGA are a clump of cells associated to blood pression regulation
proximal convoluted tubule absorbs 80% of fluid that enters it.sodium and chloride are actively readsorbed and water is adsorbed by osmosis
urinary bladder ephitelium transitional ephitelium called urothelium
defense systems of the body acute inflammatory mechanism and immune response
acute inflammatory mechanism first response to foreing object, bacteria,toxic substance or injury.Initial response is done for cells that are already in affected tissues, blood flow increases and more cellls come to site of infection
immune response more specific and targets response to certain chemical groups of target. two characteristics are important immuno response recognizes the self and has immunological memory.
immune response mechanism first, Ag presenting cells recognize the Ag as being non self. Ag presenting cells are:macrophages, dendritic cells and B-lymphocytes. The, specific response is initiated
Macrophages and dendritics cells location in the supportive tissue, beneth epithelial surfaces and in lymphoid tissue(associated with GI, ephitelial and bronchial mucose), and adjacent to body cavities surfaces
sites of reproduction of lymphocytes lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and lymphoid tissues
chronic inflammatory reaction presence of lymphocytes and macrophages surrounding an area of tissue
giant cells macrophages associated with long term inflammatory response that fuse together
Langhan's cells giant cells associated with tubercular granulomas
humoral response imcludes sensitization of B lymphocytes, conversion of B cells to plasma cells and production of of antiglobulines to react with foreing antigen
Plasma cells B cells become activated, cells reproduce into clones and differenciate to form plasma cells or B memory cells
Lymphoid tissue bone marrow,thymus,lymph nodes,spleen,mucose associated lymphoid tissues
hormones produced by thymus that help produce, maturate and fuctioning of T cells in tissues thymulin,thymopoietin and thymosin.
lymphatic nodes main purposes 1. filters to trap particulate material and physically remove it from circulation were Ag, Ag presenting cells react to begin recognition, activation and cloning of lymphocytes.
lymph nodes contain three cell types: Lymphoid cells: any form of lymphocyte, T cells plasm cells, mature to immature 2. accesory cells: Ag pressenting cells and macrophages 3. stromal cells: Endothelial cells and fibroblasts
spleen functions: 1.extraction of particulate substances from circulation 2.removal of damaged, old, or Ab coated from systemic circulation 3.initiation of of immune responses to Ags circulating in the systemic circulation 4. red cells production in fetus
cells communication that involves use of secreted messanger molecules may be divided into three: autocrine: cells produce a messanger molecule to react with own receptor cells paracrine:cells produce messanger molecules to react with adjacent cells receptors endocrine: messenger molecules secreed into blood stream to act on cells physically distant
hormones messenger molecules produce by cells of endocrine system, consisting of glycoproteins,peptides, steroids, amino acids and amines
endocrine cells may occur in th ree different configurations 1. as discrreet membrane bound organs that just secreet hormones clustersof cells contained within the within the structure of another organ(pancreas, ovaries, testes) 3. as individual cells dispersed among tissues of mucosal surfaces
based on IHC cells of anterior pituitary may be categorized as: somatotrophs-growh hormone (GR), lactotrophs-prolactin (PRL),tyrotrophs-thyrotrophin (TSH)), gonadotrops-gonadotrophin (FSH/LH), corticotrops-adrenocorticotrophin(ACTH), lipo-tropin (LPH), melanin- stimulant hormone(MSH), cells with no reactivity.
posterior pituitary secreets two hormones: oxytocin and vasopressin or or antidiuretic hormone
pineal gland consist of pinealocytes (sintetize melatonin-hormone influences circadian rhytms ans sleep patterns) and glial cells
role of pineal gland associated with sleep patterns, circadian rhytms and reproduction
thyroid function secret tri-iodothyronine(T3), Thyroxine(T4) and calcitonin. Thyroid hormones regulate basal metabolic rates, influence protein synthesis, affect heat regulation y regulates metabolism of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates
thyroid conformation consist of innumerable follicles containing a secretory product, tyroglobulin. This is an intermediate product substance stored in the follicles.
thyroid C or parafollicular cells produce calcitonin
calcitonin function inhibits absorption of calcium from bone by reducing osteoclast activity, and regulates calciun ions. Activity of C cells seems to be controlled by blood calcium levels
thyroid disorders iodine deficiency- thyroid goitres, no hormonal imbalances aotimmune disorders-Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves disease inflammatory conditions
parathyroid glands location located in the neck in the region of thyroid gland
type of cells that have the parathyroid gland supportive cells, chief and oxyphil cells
chief cells secrete parathormone, wich plays a major role in calcium regulation
adrenal or suprarenal glands location located close to superior pole of kidney
adrenal gland diveded in two zones: outer cortex and inner medulla
adrenal cortex has three zones: zone glomerulosa- synthesizes aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone zona fasciculata-synthesizes cortisol and corticosterone zona reticularis- synthesizesandrogenic steroids and glucocorticoid
which hormones are produced for the adrenal medulla adrenaline(epinephrine),noradrenalin (norepinephrine),some peptides, enkephalins
what is the name of endocrine cells of pancreas that form clusters? islets of Langerhans
There are four types of pancreatic cells: 70% are insilin secreting cells or B cells -20% glucagon secreting cells or A cells -8% somatostatinsecreting cells or D cells -2% pancreatic polypeptides or F cells -others secrete vasoactine, intestinal peptide, serotonina, somatostatina,motilina
testes produce androgens, wich are the two main one androgens? testoterone and stradiol
what are cells that produce androgens? Leyding cells
wich are the hormones secreted by ovarian folicles? Progesterone and estrogens (estradiol,estrone and estriol)
Many hormone secring cells are difused throughout the supportive tissue of the body, this is the diffuse endocrine system these are know as APUD cells - amine precursor uptake and decarboxilation
Many of APUD cells secrete hormones or peptides to control processes in adjacent cells or within close proximity autocrine or paracrine influence
female reproductive system composition paired ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina these are known as internal genitalia
external genitalia labia majora, labia minora, vestibule or introitus, vestibular glands and clitoris
labia majora tissue composition modified skin, contains substantial amounts of subcutaneous fat and obliquely oriented hair follicles. eccrine sweat glands; apocrine and sebaceous glands
labia minora tissue composition covered by skin but not fat or air follicles, abundant blood vessels and elastic fibres
vagina tissue composition comprised of mucosa, a muscularis and an adventitia. mucosa folded into rugae. Mucosa contains a surface layer of non-keratinized stratified squamous ephitelium and a lamina propria.
vagina's lamina propria it has irregular supportive tissues, elastic fibres and numerous blood vessels
uterus divided in three regions fundus, body and cervix
portion of cervix that is located within the vagina is called ecto-cervix
ecto-cervix ephitelium non-queratinizing stratified squamous ephitelium and contains variable amounts of glycogen dependent on hormones levels
cervix tissue composition consist of supportive tissue, especially collagen and some smooth muscle
uterus tissue description body and funud are similar. They have a mucosal lining, muscular layer and a serosa. serosal consists of single layer of flattened mesothelial cells. muscular layer myometrium consist of three layers of smooth muscle, with supportive tissue,arteries,veins
Fallopian tubes tissue composition lining of specialized ephitelium, lamina propria, layers of smooth muscle and simple serosal surface
ovary division cortex and medulla
ovarian cortex contains two cell and tissue populations -supporting cells, fibroblasts, collagen and reticulin fibres and lipid containing cells -cells associated with gamete production, oocytes, primordial fillicles and secondary follicles
placenta's functional unit chorionic villus, each villus is derived from trophoblasts cells of the embryo
placenta viewed microscopically has innumerable clumps of cells, wich are: cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts and mesenchymal connective tissue
umbilical cord connection between fetus and placenta
umbilical cord on cross section contains three blood vessels two umbilical arteries and one umbilical cord
Wharton's jelly contains hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulphate, fine collagenous fibres, and stellate mesenchymal cells
male reproductive system consist of testes,penis,system of tubular structures for storage and transfer of germinal cells and a number of glandular elements
testes endocrine and exocrine functions
scrotum tissue description covered by keratinized stratified squamous ephitelium containing oblique hair follicles and numerous eccrine sweat glands
testis contain seminiferous tubules, what is their function tubulus are lined by germinal ephitelial celss, which are producing male gametes( spermatocytes)
Epididymis single, convoluted attached to posterior aspect of testis by vascular loose connective tissue
vas deferens straight tube through spermatic cord along with arteries, veins and lymphatics, that leads from tail of epididymis, connects to ejaculatory duct
seminal vesicles secrete a liquid that contains fructose and other sugars, prostaglandins, proteins, and amino acids; these are thougth to provide nutrients to spermatozoa
prostate compound exocrine gland composed of tubo acinar glands embedded in a stroma of fibro- muscular tissue and supportive tissue
function of prostatic secretions include acid phosphatasa, proteolytic enzymes, citric acid, amylase and high levels of zinc: this secretion helps to liquify the mucoid consistency of seminal fluid, modifies pH of vagina to help spermatozoa have longer survival
penis consist of three cylindrical bands of erectile tissue, supportive tissue, blood vessels and is covered in a layer of thin skin
the wall of heat consists of three layers epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
average blood pressure within the pulmonary circulation is: 15mm Hg
blood in portal circulation passes from bowel to the liver
which ventricle pumps blood into pulmonary vein right ventricle
where is located the entrance to coronary arteries in the aorta just above the aortic valve
flow of lymph within lymphatic system is caused by: smooth muscle contraction in vessel walls
circulatory system transport immune cells, circulates drugs and antibiotics and plays a role in thermoregulation
heart valves consist of fibrous connective tissue covered by endothelial cells
In a muscular artery, most prominent layer will be: Internal elastic lamina
lacrimal glands drain into nasal cavities
nosopharynx is the only site in main respiratory tract that is lined by estratified squamous ephitelium false
collection of lymphoid tissue in pharynx and nasopharynx Waldeyer's ring
Clara cells may be found in bronchiolos
thoracic cavity is separated from abdominal cavity by diaphragm
parietal and visceral pleura are coated with pleural fluid
lower end of trachea does not enter lungs true
lymphatic drainage system of the lungs passes through lymph nodes adjacent to bronchus
alveolar macrophages may be known as dust cells, heart failure cells and contain lysosomes
Oxygeneted blood from lungs travels through pulmonary veins
Peyer's patch mass of lymphoid tissue usually seen in the lamina propria
oral cavity is lined by stratified squamous epethelium
Auerbach's plexus may be foud between muscle layers of external muscularis
there are more goblet cells in the distal than in proximal colon true
columnar epithelial cells lining the tubular glands in the gastric mucose secrete hydrochloric acid, proteolytic enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones
external bands of muscle in large intestine are taenia coli
surface cells of the stomach produce gastric mucine
Paneth cells are found in crypts of Lieberkuhn
Brunner's glands secrete alkaline mucous in duodenum
Capsule covering outer surface of liver Glisson's capsule
Not a constituent of bile lipase
suply blood to liver hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery
Endothelial cells that line sinusoides of liver do not have a basement membrane true
acinar cells of pancreas contain numerous ribosomes and rough RE
point in duodenum at which bile enters lumen is called: ampulla of Vater
Embriologically, hepatocytes are derived from: Ephitelial cells
Kupffer cells may be found in the sinusoids of the liver
which are not components of the gall bladder thick layer of smooth muscle and large aggregations of lymphoid tissue
when viewed microscopically, a portal tract will be seen to contain a small muscular artery, a thin walled vein, a small bile duct and a smal lymphatic vessel
Kidney will always attempt to excrete as mucha water as possible false
a blood vessel entering a glomerular tuft is afferent arteiole
wall of the ureter contains 2-3 incomplete layers of smooth muscle
The interstitium of the renal cortex contains scanty supportive tissue cells and fine strands of collagen and reticulin
what portion of the nephron follows the proximal convoluted tubule descending thick loop of Henle
the medulla contains large numbers of loops of Henle
distal and proximal convoluted tubules are lined by simple cuboidal apithelium
Ephitelial cells that lined the urinary bladder are interconnected by desmosomes and tight junctions
what percentage of the cardiac output of blood goes to kidneys 20-25%
Basic fuctional unit of kidney nephron
Acute inflammation will persist until stimulus is removed
predominant cells in a lymphoid follicle B cells
In an adult, the thymus becames involuted and is replaced by adipose tissue
large number of lymphocytes concentrated in an specific tissue site often indicates cell mediated response is under way or a chronic inflammatory reaction is present
In a plasma cell, a pale zone near the nucleous is most likely to be Golgi apparatus
red pulp of spleen consists of red blood cellsand sinusoids
Blood flow into a lymph node enters by way of an afferent vessel that penetrates the hilum
lymphocytes are most accurately classified by IHC techniques and appear similar microscopically regardless of their subtypes
which cells are not involved in an accute inflammatory reaction plasma cells
a humoral response involves sensitization of B lymphocytes, differentiation of B lymphocytes into plasma cells and production of specific antibodies by plasma cells
endocrine hormones will react with any cells false
the surface of pineal gland is covered by pis mater and arachnoids membranes
the thyroid is originally derived from neuroendocrine tissues in the embryo false
pituitary growth hormone is synthesized by somatotrophs
melatonin is not secreted by the neurohypophysis
parafollicular cells are not found in the parathyroid glands
secretory cells of theadrenal medulla are sometimes known as chromaffin cells
noradrenalin is not synthesized by cells found in the islets of Langerhans
islets of Langerhans are more concentrated in the head of the pancreas false
endocrine cells may not accur in the following configuration as sheets of cells forming the walls of sinusoids
elevated estrogen levels will cause glycogen to accumulate in the cytoplasm of vaginal ephitelial cells
cells lining the endocervical canal are ciliated columnar
capillaries seen within a placental villus contain maternal bood cells false
In the external genitalia of a prepubescent female, which glands are present eccrine sweat glands
myometrium contains collagenous connective tissue and abundant smooth muscle
ovary is attached to uterus by the ovarian and suspensory ligaments true
the wall of the vagina consists of a statified endothelial lining, a muscular layer and an outer serosal layer false
in the ovary, a primary follicle has a surronding layer of stromal granulosa cells
primordial plasma cells are not found within the umbilical cord
hormone secreting cells in the testes are Leydig cells
most prominent cells in the epididymis are the transitional cells that line the tubules false
during their passage through the epididymis, spermatozoa become motile
the vas deferens is lined by columnar ephitelial cells true
prostaglandin is not a constituent of prostatic secretion
when immature spermatozoa pass through the seminal vesicles, any remnats of germinal cell cytoplasm are rem;oved by Sertoli cells true
cells lining the glands of the prostate contain rough ER,Golgi, and secretory granules, and are tall columnar cells with pale nuclei
Created by: dduque



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