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7th Grade Texas History Chapter 16 Review

Events that led to the Mexican War 1) Border disputes, 2) Annexation of Texas, and 3) Admission Act
What was the border dispute? When the U.S. and the Mexicans had different ideas of where the border was. (U.S. - Rio Grande; Mexcio - Nueces)
Who did President Polk order to Texas? General Zachary Taylor
What was his nickname? (who President Polk ordered to Tx) "Old Rough and Ready"
Where did General Taylor build a fort? along the river near what is called Brownsville
Describe the events at the Rio Grande River Force of 1600 Mexican cavalry crossed the Rio Grande and attacked more than 60 U.S. soldiers
When was the war officially declared (at the Rio Grande River)? May 13, 1846
How did Texans respond to the call of war? Thousands of volunteers rushed to join the army
Why did many Texans want to fight? They wanted a chance to fight against Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
How many Texans fought in the Mexican War? 6,000 Texans
Who did Juan Seguin fight for? Why? He fought for Mexico. He feared his safety in San Antonio.
Who was governor of Texas at the time? What did he do when the war started? The governor was James Pickney Henderson. He temporarily left office to fight in the U.S. Army.
Describe the contributions and problems the Texas Ranger brought to the U.S. forces. Contributions: leadership, bravery, more fighters Problems: didn't follow the orders of officers, attacked for no reason
Name some famous Rangers John S. "Rip" Ford, John Coffee Hays, Ben McCulloch
What did the Mexicans call them? los diablos Tejanos - "the Texas devils"
Who was Jane McManus Cazneau? She was a reporter in Texas who joined a diplomatic group headed to Mexico. She became the only American Journalist to report behind the enemy lines.
What is an offensive? a major troop advance
Where was the first important victory for the U.S. forces? Monterrey
How did Santa Anna respond? He sent Taylor a note demanding that U.S. forces surrender
What as Taylor's reply? That he would never surrender
What was General Winfield Scott's strategy? Under this plan, troops would land at Veracruz and march west to attack Mexico City, the nation's capitol.
Describe the outcome of Scott's strategy. Polk liked this idea and sent more soldiers (successful)
What city did they capture that ended the war? Mexico City
Other U.S. forces had taken control of what? California and parts of New Mexico
When did the war end? September 14, 1847
How many U.S. soldiers lost their lives? 13,000
How did most of them die (U.S. soldiers)? from major life-threatening diseases
Who was Nicholas Trist? a U.S. diplomat
What is the importance of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo? to end the Mexcian War
What were the terms of the treaty? 1) Mexico recognized the annexation of Texas and the Rio Grande as its border, 2) US agreed to cover $3.25 million claims US citizens had against Mex govt, and 3) Mexico agreed to turn over land for $15 million.
What was the Mexican Cession? Mexico agreed to turn over, some 529,000 square miles of its Northern territory to the U.S. for $15 million
Once the war was over, what was the major issue in the U.S.? slavery
What was Senator Clay's suggestion to end the debate in the U.S.? Help border conflict - federal gov offered to pay Tx $10 million ; slavery - U.S. establishes border
What was this plan called (Senator Clay's suggestion)? Compromise of 1850
What treatment did Tejanos receive after the war? U.S. questioned loyalty of Tejanos - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Examples of treatment that Tejanos received after the war. Forced to leave Texas. Discrimination against the Tejano
What was the occupation of most new Texans? slaveholders
What was the state population in 1850? In 1860? 1850: 212,592 1860: 604,215
How many African Americans lived in Texas? more than 58,000 in 1850 to 183,000 in 1860. But fewer than 800 free. African Americans lived in Texas at the time.
How many Mexican Americans lived in Texas? 12,000
What was the largest immigrant group in Texas? German
Who was responsible for solving disputes with the Indians once Texas became a state? The federal government
What problems were there in handling the disputes with the Indians once Texas became a state? The state controlled all public land that Indians claimed.
What advantages did the Texas Rangers have in dealing with the Texas Indians? The Texas Rangers had horses. They could cover land as quickly as the Comanche and Kiowa did.
Describe the location of the forts in Texas. They stretched from the Rio Grande to the Trinity River.
What was the purpose of the forts in Texas? They protected both settlers and travel routes.
Why did the army abandon the original line of forts? There were soon established homesteads west of the original fort.
What were some problems that forts faced? The forts were too far apart to protect settlers or to prevent them from moving west.
What are reservations? limited areas of land reserved for American Indians
What were some problems faced on the reservations? A drought in the mid 1850s made growing crops difficult
Why didn't all Indians want to live on them? Most Indians wanted to maintain their traditional way of life.
How did Texans respond to the Indian Reservations? They claimed that the Indians stole horses and cattle, the settlers formed armed groups to patrol the reservation boundaries, the settlers sometimes killed Indians found off the reservations.
Where did the Indians living on the Brazos and Comanche Reservation end up living? They had been removed and put into Indian territory in what is now called Oklahoma
Who was Robert Neighbors? Federal Indian agent
What happened to Robert Neighbors? He was murdered by an angry Texan at Fort Belknap
Which Indian group was allowed to stay in Texas? The Alabama - Cashatta
Why were the Cashatta allowed to stay in Texas? They aided settlers fleeing east during the Runaway Scrape, because of this the Texans were friendly to them.
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