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soliology final

sex refers to biological identity
gender refers to learned behaviors associated with each sex
wage gap men are usually paid more than women even if they are equally qualified
Human capital Theory Age experience education marital status and hours worked influence worth in labor market
Dual labor market women and men earn different amounts of money because they work in different segments of the market.
Gender segregation men and women work in gender segregated occupations
Overt Discrimination white men get an advantage over women and minorities through labor unions , legislation, harassment, and intimidation
Gender socialization Teaches expectations for each sex and effects self concept , social and political attitudes, perceptions of people, relationships.
Agents of gender Socialization Parents, Childhood play and games, schools, religion, media.
Pluralism Don't have to be the same in race or culture to get the same privileges. Separate but equal.
Voter Participation U.S. has low voter participation
Capitalism Based on market competition, private property and pursuit of property.
Socialism Means of production are property of the state
Communism state is the sole owner of the system of production.
Dual labor market theory labor has two major segments
Primary jobs with relatively high wages, benefits, stability, good working conditions, opportunities for promotion, job protection, and due process for workers.
Secondary Jobs with low wages, few benefits, high turnover poor working conditions, little opportunity for advancement, no job protection, and bad treatment of workers.
Modernization theory to develop countries must embrace new technologies and market driven values.
Poverty results from traditional values and customs that prevent competition in a modern economy.
Dependency theory Exploits least powerful nations to benefit the wealthy.
poverty result from low income countries dependence on the wealthy
Average middle class America Known as rich
Economies of the world poorest countries comprise of 3 billion people which is over half the worlds population.
Children in the poor have 5 kids
Rich countries 15% of the worlds population
Children in rich Have 2 Kids
Health in high income countries lower childhood death rates, higher life expectancy, fewer children born underweight, clean water and sanitation.
Women's status individually frequent use of alcohol membership in marginalized communities, low educational or economic status, history of abuse as a child. witness of marital violence.
Women's status community isolation lack of social support, community tolerates male violence, high levels of social and economic inequality.
Women's status Family Male control of wealth, male control of decision making, history of marital violence, significant disparities in economic, educational, employment status.
Women's status Societal Gender roles that support male dominance, tolerance of violence, inadequate laws to prevent and punish violence, limited awareness of officials.
Contributing factors to success Class origins, formal education of parents, race, ethnicity, Gender.
Standardized Testing measures limited range of mobility. Designed by middle class white males and include cultural and gender biases. do not predict school performance very well.
Teacher expectancy affect What teachers expect students to do they will do. Applying a label justifies the label.
U.S. health care Unequal distribution of health care based on gender, race, ethnicity, and social class. Unequal by region. inadequate health education of inner-city and rural parents.
African American Health care African American women are more likely than white to have cancer, heart disease, diabetes, suffer a stroke.
African American medical attention African American do not receive medical attention as soon as whites. When they get treatment their illness is more advanced and the treatment is not of the same quality
Aids Aids appeared in 1980's associated with gay men
Concepts of Race primarily a socially constructed category based on physical criteria.
Salience principle Categorized people on basis of appearance and because what is prominent and salient about them. Like skin color, gender,age.
What is Salient Culturally determined in some culture religion may be more salient than skin color
Prejudice prejudgment on the base of race
Discrimination Behavior involving unequal treatment
Racism attitudes and behavior
Laissez-faire AKA Symbolic racism
Contact theory interactions will reduce prejudice if 3 conditions are met. Contact between the individuals of equal status. Contact is sustained. participants agree upon social norms favoring equality.
Family Ideal Few Families Conform
Family defined Primary group of people usually related by ancestry marriage or adoption. form a cooperative economic unit to care for any offspring and each other and are committed to maintaining the group over time
Polygamy Practice of men or women having multiple partners.
Polygyny one man having more than one wife
Polyandry wife having more than one husband
Incest Taboo considered to universal. cultural norm forbidding sexual relations and marriage between certain kin.
2nd Shift Women work a 2nd shift of unpaid household work even when they have paid employment.
Boomerang generation Single people are remaining in their parents homes for longer periods of time.
Young people boomerang generation young people in their 20's return home when they would normally be expected to live independently.
How many live at home 55% of men and 45% of women between 18-24 yrs of age live at home with their parents.
Maternity leave for the U.S. 12 weeks no pay
Religion 49% Protestant 24% catholic
Durkheim Religion Reaffirms social bonds between people. creates social cohesion through religious rituals. binds individuals to society by est a collective consciousness
Marx Religion Legitimates the social order and supports the ideas of the ruling class. Soothes the oppressed and prevents them from rising against oppression. Can be basis for social change or social continuity.
Webber Religion material wealth means one is favored by God this motivated protestants to confirm their salvation. value of judgments about those who haven't succeeded can be traced back to influence of religion.
Sex Education Comprehensive sex ed actually delays the age of first intercourse. Abstinence only ed has not been shown to be effective in delaying intercourse.
Sexual revolution Changes in roles of men and women and the acceptance of sexuality as a normal part of development. influenced by feminist movement, gay lesbian rights movement.
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