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U.S. History

Unit 11 and Unit 12 Assessment Review: The Cold War and Postwar America

Unit 11 and Unit 12 Test Review: The Cold War and Postwar America
1. Satellite nations: Countries under the control of the Soviet Union; Had to remain communist and follow USSR policy 2. Containment: Taking measures to prevent the spread and extension of communism in other countries
3. Subversion: Effort to weaken society and overthrow its government 4. Closed Shop: Businesses that were forced to hire only union members
Right to work laws: Outlawed union shops which forced workers to join unions after they started to work
United Nations Compromise 1. Delegates from 39 countries met at Dumbarton Oaks, D.C. in 1944
2. Created the United Nations 3. UN would be composed of a General Assembly (Members would have 1 vote) and a Security Council with 11 members (5 permanent members would have veto power)
4. April 25, 1945, 50 countries met in San Francisco to design the UN charter (constitution)
Yalta Conference Agreements 1. Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met in Yalta in February 1945
2. Agreed to recognize the Polish government set up by USSR as long as members of prewar Polish government were included and free elections were held 3. Declaration of Liberated Europe stated all people could choose form of government they wanted. Europeans could create democratic organizations and temporary governments and promised free elections and a government that represented the people
4. Germany was split into 4 zones with Britain, France, U.S., and USSR controlling one zone; Berlin was split as well (Inside USSR zone)
Concerns for Soviet Union post WWII 1. Wanted to keep Germany weak 2. Wanted countries between them and Germany under Soviet control 3. Wanted to spread communism
Agreements of German reparations and economy between U.S. and USSR • Stalin and USSR could take reparations from their zone of Germany
• Allows would allow industry to grow in other zones • Offered Stalin a small amount of industrial equipment from other zones
• Truman offered to accept the new German-Polish border the Soviets established
Truman’s containment theory: Truman believed that keeping communism within it present territory through either diplomatic, economic, or military actions would result in the downfall of communism
Truman Doctrine gave aid to: 1. Turkey 2. Greece
Soviet Union response to U.S., France, and Britain merging their zones of Germany in 1948: • In June 1948, Soviets blockaded West Germany
Warsaw Pact formed in response to: • Formation of NATO
What event caused a shift in American policy in Japan? • Once China became Communist, the U.S. adopted policies to encourage quick recovery of Japan’s industrial economy
Korean War as a turning point in the Cold War: • U.S. and Soviet troops had entered Korea to disarm the Japanese troops based there after the end of WWII
• Korea was divided at the 38th parallel • On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops invaded the South and quickly pushed back South Korean forces
• Truman called on UN to act and ordered U.S. naval and air power to take action • On September 15, 1950, MacArthur ordered an attack at Inchon, behind enemy lines
Impact of HUAC in Hollywood: • One of first trials focused on film industry
• Ronald Reagan testified that there were Communists in Hollywood • “Hollywood 10” – 10 screenwriters used 5th Amendment rights to protect themselves from serious incrimination
• Producers began to blacklist anyone who might possibly be a Communist and those who refused to cooperate with HUAC
Why did Truman fire General MacArthur? • After Truman refused to expand the war, MacArthur began to publicly criticize the president
• Said it was a mistake to keep the war limited • Felt limited war was a form of appeasement which would lead to a bigger war
• Truman fired MacArthur in April 1951 for failing to follow orders • Had to show he was in charge of military
• MacArthur remained very popular • Came home to hero’s welcome and parades
• Many Americans criticized Truman • Congress and military leaders supported Truman’s decision
• Policy of limited war: A war fought to achieve a limited objective
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg: • Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were arrested and charged with being spies for the Soviets
• They were sentenced to death and executed in June 1953 • Many felt the Rosenbergs were victims caught in the wave of anti-Communism
• Venona documents gave strong evidence that Rosenbergs were guilty of stealing nuclear secrets for the Soviets
Provisions of the McCarran Act 1. Made it illegal to try and set up a dictator-run government in the United States
2. Required all Communist-related organization to publish their records and register with the U.S. attorney general 3. Restricted Communists from receiving passports
4. Communists could be arrested and put in jail in cases of national emergency
McCarthyism: McCarthy’s practice of harming reputations with vague or unfounded charges
• Made shocking claims that were not backed with evidence • Questioned witnesses harshly and would not accept their answers
• People were afraid to challenge him
Reason behind Eisenhower’s massive retaliation policy: • Eisenhower believed nuclear weapons provided better value for the money than keeping a large and expensive army
• Believed in a policy of massive retaliation • Threatening to use nuclear weapons to avoid wars altogether
• Threatening to use nuclear weapons to avoid wars altogether • Eisenhower was able to cut military spending from around $50 billion to about $34 billion
• Decreased size of army • Increased the nuclear arsenal from about 1,000 to about 18,000 bombs between 1953 – 1961
• Many critics were worried about President Eisenhower’s willingness to threaten nuclear war to maintain peace
Eisenhower’s brinkmanship policy • Brinkmanship: The willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side to back down
Aim behind CIA covert operations under Eisenhower: • Eisenhower used the Central Intelligence Agency to carry out covert, or hidden, operations throughout the world
• Many CIA operations took place in developing nations, nations with mainly farming economies • Blamed European imperialists and U.S. capitalism for their problems
• Leaders looked to the Soviet Union as a model of how to industrialize their nations • Threatened to nationalize foreign businesses operating in their countries
• CIA covert operations aimed to replace anti-American leaders with pro-American leaders
Soviet Union claimed a victory in Cold War because of this incident: • The U-2 Incident
Labor unrest caused mostly by what? • Higher demand for goods led to inflation
Taft Hartley Act Provisions 1. Outlawed the closed shop:Businesses were forced to hire only union members
2. Allowed states to pass right to work laws: outlawed unions shops which forced workers to join unions after they started to work
3. Banned featherbedding: Reducing work output in order to create more jobs
4. Banned use of union money to support political campaign 5. Truman vetoed the bill, but Congress passed the bill over Truman’s veto
“Do Nothing Congress” • Gave aid to Greece and Turkey • Passed the Marshall Plan • Created the Department of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and set up Air Force as separate military branch • Passed the 22nd Amendment: Limited president to two terms of office
Federal Highway Act 1. Provided for a $25 billion, 10 year project to build more than 400,000 miles of interstate highways 2. Approved the construction of the St. Lawrence Seaway 3. Extended Social Security
Defining characteristics of the American economy post WWII: 1. 1950’s were a decade of great wealth
2. Economist John Galbraith published the Affluent Society in 1958 • Claimed the nation’s postwar wealth was a new phenomenon
• New technology increased production which raised the standard of living • Advertising became the fastest growing industry in the U.S. • Manufacturers used marketing techniques to create consumer demand for their goods
Causes of growth of suburbs: 1. Suburbs population doubled in the 1950’s 2. People wanted to escape crime and overcrowding of cities 3. Homes were less expensive
Multinational corporations: Corporations that expanded overseas to benefit from cheaper labor and resources
Advancement in radio technology: • Radios began to broadcast more recorded music, news, weather, sports, and talk shows • Many radio listeners were people driving automobiles from the suburbs
Television shows adapted from? • More than 80% of families owned at least one television by 1957 • Variety shows featured comedy, music, dance, and acrobatics • Western and police shows became popular
Why did radio stations flourish in the 1950s? • Number of radio stations more than doubled between 1948 and 1957
Rock n’ roll: 1. New style of music influence by African American sounds 2. Elvis Presley became the first rock n’ roll idol in 1956 3. Rock n’ Roll helped to create a generation gap between the parents and children
African American struggles in 1950’s: • Racial discrimination kept many poor • Average salary was only 51% of white workers
• A Raisin in the Sun: Play written by Lorraine Hansberry telling the story of a working –class African American family struggling against poverty and racism
Rise in juvenile delinquency in U.S: • U.S. saw a 45% rise in juvenile crime rates between 1948-1953 • Juvenile delinquency: Disruptive, harmful, or illegal behavior of young people
• Disagreement on causes of rise in youth crime • Blamed TV, movies, racism, busy parents, increase in divorce rate • Failure to discipline children • Although most teens were not involved in gangs, drugs, or crimes, the public accepted stereotypes of young people as juvenile deliquencies
Termination policy and Native Americans: • U.S. government began the termination policy after WWII • Government would no longer recognize Native American groups as legal entities (independent)
• Native Americans had to follow same laws as white citizens and were encouraged to move to cities • Native American hopes of improved lives after WWII were destroyed by termination policy
Created by: 100006302139264
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