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MCAT Bio. Chem Ch. 5

Note About Lipids' Solubility In Water And Organic Solvents They are insoluble in water, and soluble in nonpolar organic solvents.
Phospholipids Are amphipathic and form the bilayer of biological membranes. They contain a hydrophilic (polar) head and hydrophobic (nonpolar) tails.
Note On How The Head Group Of Phospholipids Is Attached By a phosphodiester linkage.
Note Of Head Group Of Phospholipids And Its Environment Since it interacts with the environment, it determines the function of the phospholipid.
Saturation Of The Fatty Acid Tail Of A Phospholipid Determines the fluidity of the membrane. Saturated fatty acids are less fluid than unsaturated ones. Fatty acids form most of the structural thickness of the phospholipid bilayer.
Glycerophospholipids Phospholipids that contain a glycerol backbone.
Sphingolipids Contain a sphingosine backbone.
Sphingophospholipids Sphingolipids that contain a phosphodiester bond
Sphingomyelins Major class of sphingophospholipids that contain a phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine head group. They are a major component of the myelin sheath.
Glycosphingolipids Attached to sugar moieties instead of a phosphate group.
Cerebrosides Have one sugar connected to sphingosine
Globosides Have two or more sugars connected to sphingosine.
Gangliosides Contain oligosaccharides with at least one terminal N-acetylneuraminic acid (NAN, also called sialic acid)
Waxes Contain long-chain fatty acids sterified to long-chain alcohols. They are used as protection against evaporation and parasites in plants and animals.
Terpenes Odiferous steroid precursors made from isoprene, a five-carbon molecule.
Monoterpene (1 terpene unit) Contains two isoprene units
Terpenoids Derived from terpenes via oxygenation or backbone rearrangement. They have similar odorous characteristics.
Steroids Contain three cyclohexane rings and one cyclopentane ring. Their oxidation state and functional groups may vary.
Steroid Hormones Have high-affinity receptors, work at low concentrations, and affect gene expression and metabolism.
Cholesterol Steroid that is important to membrane fluidity and stability. It serves as a precursor to a host of other molecules.
Prostaglandins Autocrine and paracrine hormones that regulate cAMP levels. They have powerful effects on muscle contraction, body temperature, the sleep-wave cycle, and pain.
Fat Soluble Vitamins Include Vitamin A, D, E, and K
Vitamin A (Carotene) Metabolized to retinal for vision and retinoic acid for gene expression in epithelial development.
Vitamin D (Cholecalciferol) Metabolized to calcitriol in the kidneys and regulates calcium and phosphorus homeostasis in the intestines (increasing calcium and phosphate absorption), promoting bone formation.
Rickets Caused by a deficiency of Vitamin D.
Vitamin K (Phylloquinone And Menaquinones) Important for the formation of prothrombin, a clotting factor. It performs posttranslational modification on a number of proteins to create calcium binding sites.
Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) Preferred method of storing energy for long-term use. They contain one glycerol attached to three fatty acids by ester bonds. The fatty acids usually vary within the same triacylglycerol.
Note About Carbon Atoms In Lipid They are more reduced than ones in carbohydrates which gives them twice as much energy per gram during oxidation.
Note About Triacylglycerols' Hydrophobicity They are very hydrophobic, so they are not hydrated by body water and do not carry additional water weight.
Adipocytes Animal cells used for storage of large triacylglycerol deposits.
Free Fatty Acids Unesterified fatty acids that travel in the bloodstream.
Soaps Salts of free fatty acids, and are synthesized in saponification. They act as surfactants thus forming micelles.
Saponification Ester hydrolysis of triacylglycerols using a strong base, like sodium or potassium hydroxide.
Micelle Can dissolve a lipid-soluble molecule in its fatty acid core, and washes away with water because of its shell of carboxylate head groups.
Created by: SamB91