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MCAT Bio. Chem Ch. 4

Note On How Carbohydrates Are Organized By their number of carbon atoms and functional groups
Common Names Of sugars Glucose, fructose, galactose
Trioses Three-carbon sugars
Tetroses Four-carbon sugars
Aldoses Sugars with aldehydes as their most oxidized group
Ketoses Sugars with ketones as their most oxidized group
Note Of Nomenclature Of All Sugars Nomenclature of all sugars is based on the D- and L-forms of glyceraldehyde.
D-sugars Sugars with the highest-numbered chiral carbon with -OH group on the right (in a Fischer projection)
L-sugars Sugars Sugars with the highest-numbered chiral carbon with -OH on the left (in a Fischer projection).
Enantiomers D- and L-forms of the same sugar
Diastereomers Nonsuperimposable configurations of molecules with similar connectivity. How the differ: at least one but not all chiral carbons (includes epimers and anomers)
Epimers Subtype of diastereomers that differ at exactly one chiral carbon.
Anomers Subtype of epimers that differ at the anomeric carbon.
Cyclization Describes ring formation of carbohydrates from their straight chain forms.
Anomeric Carbon The new chiral center formed in ring closure. It was the carbon containing the carbonyl in the straight-chain form.
Alpha-Anomers Have the -OH on the anomeric carbon trans to the free -CH2OH group
Beta-Anomers Have the -OH on the anomeric carbon cis to the free -CH2OH group
Haworth Projections Provide a good way to represent 3D structure
Mutarotation Rotation in which cyclic compounds shift from one anomeric form to another with the straight-chain form as an intermediate.
Monosaccharides Single carbohydrate units with glucose as the most observed monomer.
Three Reactions For Monosaccharides Oxidation-reduction, esterification, and glycoside formation.
Note About Oxidation And Reduction For Aldoses Aldoses can be oxidized to aldonic acids, and reduced to alditols.
Reducing Sugars Sugars that can be oxidized and are reducing agents
Tollen's Or Benedict's Reagents Can detect reducing sugars.
Deoxy Sugars Sugars with a -H replacing an -OH group
Esterification Reaction in which sugars react with carboxylic acids and their derivatives to form esters.
Phosphorylation Reaction in which a phosphate ester is formed by transferring a phosphate group from ATP onto a sugar.
Glycoside Formation Basis for building complex carbohydrates and requires the anomeric carbon to link to another sugar.
Disaccharides Result of glycosidic bonding between two monosaccharide subunits
Polysaccharides Result of repeated monosaccharide or polysaccharide glycosidic bonding.
Sucrose Glucose-alpha-1,2-fructose
Lactose Galactose-beta-1,4-glucose
Maltose Glucose-alpha
Cellulose Main structural component for plant cell walls, and is a main source of fiber in the human diet.
Starches (amylose and amylopectin) Function as a main energy storage form for plants.
Glycogen Functions as a main energy storage form for animals.
Eq. 4.1: Number Of Stereoisomers With Common Backbone = 2^n
Created by: SamB91