Save
Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
focusNode
Didn't know it?
click below
 
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Know
0:00
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

MCAT Org. Chem Ch. 5

QuestionAnswer
Alcohols Have the general form, ROH, and are named with the suffix, -ol. If they are not the highest priority present, they are given the prefix, hydroxy-
Phenols Benzene rings with hydroxyl groups. They are named for the relative positions of the hydroxyl groups. (ortho, meta, para)
Ortho- Adjacent carbons
Meta- Separated by one carbon
Para- On opposite sides of the ring
Properties Of Alcohol They can hydrogen bond, raise their boiling and melting points relative to corresponding alkanes.
Hydrogen Bonding And Solubility Of Alcohols H-bonding increases the solubility of alcohols.
Reason Why Phenols Are More Acidic They are more acidic because the aromatic ring can delocalize the charge of the conjugate base.
Reason Why Electron-donating Groups (like Alkyl Groups) Decrease Acidity Because they destabilize negative charges.
Reason Why Electron-withdrawing Groups (ex: Electronegative Atoms and Aromatic Rings) Increase Acidity Because they stabilize negative charges.
Pyridnium Chlorochromate (PCC) Only substance used to oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes. Otherwise, the primary alcohols will be oxidized all the way to carboxylic acids by stronger oxidizing agents.
How Secondary Alcohols Can Be Oxidized To Ketones This can be done by any common oxidizing agent.
Why Alcohols Are Converted To Mesylates Or Tosylates To make them better leaving groups for nucleophilic substitution reactions
Mesylates Contain the functional group, -SO3CH3, which is derived from methanesulfonic acid.
Tosylates Contain the functional group, -SO3C6H4CH3, which is derived from toluenesulfonic acid.
How Aldehydes or Ketones Can Be Protected Convert them into acetals or ketals
Process Of How Aldehydes Or Ketones Can Be Protected 1. Two equiv's of alcohol or a dialcohol are reacted with carbonyl to form the acetal or ketal
Acetal Primary carbon with two -OR groups and a hydrogen atom
Ketal A secondary carbon with two -OR groups.
Note About Other Functional Groups In The Aldehyde / Ketone Compound During Acetal or Ketal Rxn They can be reacted without having effects on the newly formed acetal or ketal
Deprotection Process of converting an acetal or ketal back to a carbonyl by catalytic acid
Quinones Synthesized through oxidation of phenols. They are resonance-stabilized electrophiles.
Phylloquinone Vitamin K1, an example of a biochemically relevant quinone
Menaquinone Vitamin K2, an example of a biochemically relevant quinone
Hydroxyquinones Produced by oxidation of quinones, adding a variable number of hydroxyl groups
Ubiquinone (Coenzyme Q) A biologically active quinone that acts an electron acceptor in Complexes I, II, and III of the electron transport chain.
Ubiquinol Reduced form of Ubiquinone.
Created by: SamB91
 

 



Voices

Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards