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Infectious Diseases

infectious diseases mid-term

QuestionAnswer
AIDS VIRUS- Human immunodeficiency virus
Boils, furuncles carbuncles, Folliculutis Bacteria- Staphylococcus Aureus
Scalded skin syndrome Bacteria- Staphylococcus Aureus
Impetigo Bacteria- Staphylococcus Aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes
Cutaneous anthrax Bacteria- Bacillus anthracis
Tularemia Bacteria- francisella tularensis
Leprosy Bacteria- Mycobacterium leprae
Cold Sore Virus- Herpes simplex virus type 1
Smallpox Virus- Smallpox virus
Cutaneous mycoses Fungus- trichophyton, Microsporon, Epidermophyton
Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis Parasite- Leishmania
Cellulitis Bacteria- Staphylococcus Aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes
Necrotizing fasciitis Bacteria- Streptococcus pyogenes
Erysipelas Bacteria- Streptococcus pyogenes
Sporotrichosis Fungus- Sporotrichum schenckii
Elephantiasis Parasite- Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi
Loiasis Parasite- Loa loa
River blindness Parasite- Onchocerca Volvulus
Guinea worm disease Parasite- Dracunculus medinensis
Septic arthritis Bacteria- Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Gas gangrene Bacteria- Clostridium perfringens
Burn infections Bacteria- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Animal bite infections Bacteria- Pasturella multocida
Lyme disease Bacteria- Borrelia burgdorferi
Rocky Mountain spotted fever Bacteria- Rickettsia rickettsi
Epidemic typhus fever Bacteria- Rickettsia prowazeki
Endemic or murine typhus fever Bacteria- Rickettsia typhi
Anaplasmosis Bacteria- Anaplasma phagoctyophilum
Ehrlichiosis Bacteria-Ehrlichia chaggeensis
Babesiosis Parasite- Babesia microti
Measles (rubeola) Virus- Measles virus
Rubella Virus- Rubella virus
Chicken pox and shingles Virus- Varicella-zoster virus
Erythema infectiosum Virus- Parovirus B19
Oral candidiasis Fungus- Candida albicans
Ulcers Bacteria- Helicobacter pylori
Intoxications Bacteria- Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum
Viral gastroenteritis Virus- Rotavirus, Norovirus
Noninflammatory gastroenteritis- Bacterial Bacteria- Enterotoxigenic E. Coli (ETEC), Enteropathogenic E. Coli (EPEC), Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium botulinum (infant botulism)
Noninflammatory gastroenteritis- Parasitic Parasite- Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum
Antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis Bacteria- Clostridium difficile
Invasive gastroenteritis- Bacterial Bacteria- Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, Shingella, Enterohemorrhagic E. Coli (EHEC), Enteroinvasive E. Coli (EIEC)
Invasive gastroenteritis- Parasitic Parasite- Entamoeba histolytica
Typhoid fever Virus- Salmonella typhi
Nematode infections in small intestine Parasite- Ascaris Lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Strongyloides stercoralis
Nematode infections in large intestine Parasite- Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis
Tapeworm infections Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Diphyllobothrium latum
Trematode infection Parasite- Fasciolopsis buski
Fecal-borne hepatitis Virus- Hepatitis A & E
Blood-borne hepatitis Virus- Hepatitis B, C, D
Yellow fever Virus- Yellow fever virus
Schistosomiasis Parasite- Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japanicum, Schistosoma haematobium
Liver fluke infections Parasite- Clonorchis cinensis, Fasciola hepatica
Bacterial meningitis Bacteria- E. coli, Group B streptococcus, Listeria monocytogenes, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae
Viral meningitis Virus- Enteroviruses, Arboviruses, Herpes simplex virus
Amoebic meningoencephalitis Parasite- Naegleria fowlers
Fungal meningitis Fungus- Cryptococcus neoformans
Encephalitis Virus- Arboviruses: West Nile virus, La Cross virus, St. Louis virus, Eastern equine virus, Western equine virus
Rabies Virus- Rabies virus
Polio Virus- Polio virus
Tetanus Bacteria- Clostridium tetani
Botulism Bacteria- Clostridium botulinum
African sleeping sickness Parasite- Trypanosoma brucei
CJD Prions
Leishmaniasis vector Sand fly
Elephantiasis vector Anopheleses and Culex Mosquito
Guinea worm disease dracunculiasis vector Copepods infected with larval worms (from infected drinking water)
Loiasis vector Deerfly
River blindness vector Black fly along rivers
Lyme disease vector Deer tick
Rocky Mountain spotted fever vector Wood tick
Epidemic typhus fever vector Body Louse
Endemic or murine typhus fever vector Rat flea
Anaplasmosis vector Deer tick
Ehrlichiosis vector Lone star tick
Babesiosis vector Deer tick
Encephalitis caused by Arboviruses vector Mosquito
African sleeping disease sickness vector Tsetse fly
Endemic – A disease or infectious agent that is habitually present in a community, geographic area, or population group – Often an endemic disease maintains a low but continuous incidence
Epidemic – occurrence of a disease clearly in excess of normal expectancy
Pandemic – An epidemic that spans a wide geographical area
Incidence – # of new cases in a defined population over a defined period of time.
Prevalence – total number of cases existing in a defined population at a specific time.
Mortality – occurrence / # of death in a population
Morbidity – occurrence of an illness or illnesses in a population
Exposure – Something in the environment that may cause or increase the risk of an adverse health outcome
Risk factor – An exposure that is associated with a disease, morbidity, mortality, or adverse health outcome
Infectivity – The capacity of the agent to enter and multiple in a susceptible host (measured by the secondary attack rate)
Pathogenicity – The capacity of the agent to cause disease in the infected host (measured by the proportion of infected individuals with clinical manifestations)
Virulence – The severity of the disease (measured by the proportion of the total cases that are severe or, if the disease is fatal, the case fatality rate)
Toxigenicity – capacity of the agent to produce a toxin
Resistance – The ability of the agent to survive adverse environmental conditions
Antigenicity – The ability of the agent to induce antibody production in the host
Immunogenicity – The ability to produce specific, long-lasting immunity
Confounding – Something other than what was being evaluated caused the results
Bias – Any systematic error in the design, conduct, or analysis of a study that results in a mistaken estimate of an exposure's effect on the risk of disease – Examples: • Selection • Recall
p-value – Expresses the probability that the observed result could have occurred by chance alone – p-value of 0.05 means that if the study is done 100 times, 95 of those times will yield the same result – Desired p-value is usually set at 0.05 or less
Confidence interval – Range of values within which the “true value” falls – Usually set at 95%
Inapparent (asymptomatic) infection – Clinical symptoms have not appeared – Disease could still be transmitted
Incubation period – The time interval between exposure and appearance of the 1st signs and symptoms
Colonization – The infectious agent may multiply on the host without causing disease
What is epidemiology? It answers the questions who, when, and where of a disease. • Epidemiology is concerned with the distribution and determination of health and diseases, morbidity, injuries, disability, and mortality in populations.
What is relative risk? Cohort Studies: Relative risk = Incidence rate in the exposed / Incidence rate in the nonexposed.A relative risk of 1.0 implies the risk of disease among the exposed is no different from the risk of disease among the nonexposed.
What is an odds-ratio? Case control studies: ratio of the exposed for cases nonexposed / ratio of the exposed for the controls nonexposed
What are sources of error in epidemiology studies Confounding and Bias
With respect to screening tests, define sensitivity and specificity (Can't have both at 100%) Sensitivity–The ability of a test to identify correctly all screened individuals who actually have the disease being screened for. Specificity-The ability of a test to identify nondiseased individual who do not have the disease
Compare cohort and case-control studies (from comparison page). Make your own chart. Don't be lazy
Descriptive epidemiology is described as the “who, when, and where”. Give some examples of who, when, and where. Who= Age, Sex, Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic status When= Cyclic, Seasonal, Trends Where= International, Regional, Urban/rural
Give some examples of reservoirs for infectious agents Soil, animals, arthropods, other humans, part of environment as food or water
Compare attack rate, secondary attack rate, and case fatality rate Attack rate=( ill/ill + well) x 100 ; secondary attack rate= (new cases-initial cases) / (new susceptible persons- initial cases) x 100 ; Case fatality rate= (deaths due to disease / cases of disease) x 100
Explain why HIV has such a high rate of mutation It uses Reverse transcriptase which is VERY error prone. It makes about 5 errors/ genome.
What are some of the infections that HIV positive individuals are at a higher risk for? • Fungal lung infections that disseminate • Candidiasis • Pneumocystis pneumonia • Toxoplasmosis • Tuberculosis • Severe Salmonella infection • Herpes simplex virus • Cytomegalovirus
Briefly describe the HIV viral reproductive cycle Yeah.... Too much for this slide. Look it up
Describe the 3 general stages of an HIV infection.- Part 1 • Primary Infection – Acute phase viremia – Flu-like symptoms – Occurs several weeks after initially acquiring the virus – Large amounts of virus in blood – Circulating antibodies appear (seroconversion)
Describe the 3 general stages of an HIV infection.- Part 2 • Latent Period – Clinically asymptomatic – Remain in this stage as long as immune system is functional – May have some opportunistic infections – Decrease in virus in blood – Gradual decrease of CD4+ cells – Average length about 10 years
Describe the 3 general stages of an HIV infection.- Part 3 • Progression to AIDS – CD4+ count falls below 200/ml – Increase in number and severity of opportunistic infections – Malignancies associated with AIDS • Kaposi sarcoma • Lymphomas – Infected macrophages in brain ultimately lead to dementia
What are the ways the HIV virus is transmitted Sexual contact, Contaminated needles, Transfusions (rare in the US), Perinatal transmission including breast milk Worldwide: heterosexual transmission = 70-75% US: homosexual transmission and injecting drugs = 80%
What is the function 3 enzymes in the HIV virus? •Reverse transcriptase–Transcribes the viral RNA into DNA •Integrase –Cleaves the host DNA and inserts viral DNA (the provirus) into it •Protease –Cleaves polyprotein into proteins which then assemble into mature virus
While many fungal infections are acquired by spore inhalation, what are some that are spread person-to-person? • Tinea pedis (athletes foot) • Tinea corporis (ringworm) • Tinea capitis (scalp ringworm)
Describe the types of leprosy. –Tuberculoid: host is highly resistant •Lesions are large maculae in cooler body tissues, especially nose and outer ears. –Lepromatous: host lacks resistance •Extensive destruction of skin, Nodules –Borderline: between the 2 forms •Most patients
What two bacteria that cause skin lesions are considered animal pathogens? • Bacillus anthracis- Cutaneous anthrax • Francisella tularensis- Tularemia
What are the 3 forms of leishmaniasis? Cutaneous, mucocutaneous, Visceral
What cells do the Leishmania parasites invade? Macrophages and reproduce there killing the host cell and progeny invade more cells
Chronic infection with this tissue nematode can lead to elephantiasis? • Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi • Infect the circulatory, lymphatic system, or the subcutaneous tissue • Block flow of lymph fluid
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever- Vector and symptoms Wood Tick, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever -High Fever and Malaise -Rash first appears on limbs (esp. wrists and ankles) and then the entire body -Bright red maculo-papular rash
Epidemic typhus fever- Vector and symptoms Body Louse, -Sudden onset -High fever of 105-106 -Macular rash -first on the trunk and then the limbs -pink/red macules -rash blanches on pressure -Headache and fatigue -Chills
Endemic typhus fever- Vector and symptoms Rat Flea, -Rash is restricted to chest and abdomen and occurs in less than 50% of cases -Similar to Epidemic typhus fever but milder
Brill-Zinsser disease is a recurrence of what disease? Milder recurrence to typhus years later (10-40 years)
What 3 diseases/infectious agents are transmitted by the deer tick? 1. Lyme Disease 2. Anaplasmosis 3. Babesiosis
Compare anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis by giving for each: Tough luck, make your own chart
What filarial worm can cause blindness? Onchocerca volvulus that causes Onchocerciasis
What cells do the Babesia parasites infect? Infect red blood cells and undergo asexual reproduction in them
Name the organism that is the most common cause of bone infections. Staphylococcus aureus
Name the organism that is the most common cause of septic arthritis. Staphylococcus aureus
Individuals that work with plants such as farmers or gardeners are at risk for what subcutaneous fungal infection? Sporotrichosis
Someone who has shingles has had what viral infection in the past? Chicken Pox
Koplik spots are considered diagnostic for what infection? Measles or Rubeola
Why is it dangerous for a pregnant woman to contract rubella? Miscarriage, stillbirth, or congenital defects
What is Reye’s syndrome? • May occur after a viral infection (ex. Chicken pox, influenza, viral cold, others) • Symptoms: vomiting, acute encephalopathy, liver malfunction
What medication may be associated with Reye’s syndrome? Aspirin
Which virus causes the “slapped check” rash? Parvovirus B19 infections
Discuss some barriers in the GI tract to infectious agents. •Unbroken epithelium covering all parts •Epithelial cell surface structures •Mucous •Acidity of the stomach •Bile •Normal flora
Be able to differentiate between an intoxication and infection in the GI tract. •Infection-a toxin is involved but is produced as the bacteria grow •ntoxication- bacteria has grown in the food and produced a toxin and is ingested causing the symptoms. The symptoms occur much sooner than with an infection.
What age group is most likely to have a rotavirus infection? Infants and Young children
Compare the E. coli enteric infections (ETEC, EPEC, EHEC, EIEC) Make own chart :,(
What is infant botulism? • Floppy Baby Syndrome • Produces neurological symptoms • Caused by Clostridium botulinum
Name 2 protozoans that cause a non-inflammatory gastroenteritis. • Giardia lamblia • Cryptosporidium parvum
Long term broad-spectrum use of antibiotics puts a patient at risk for infection with what bacteria? C. Difficile
What 2 diseases do species (serotypes) of Salmonella cause? • Gastroenterities (food poisoning) • Typhoid fever (enteric fever)
Diagnose Ascaris and Necator Nematodes in small intestine along with Trichuris in large intestine Find eggs in stool sample
Diagnose strongyloides in small intestine and enterobius in large intesting Strongyloides- find larvae in stool sample; Enterobius- scotch tape test
What is the intermediate host for each of these tapewormsTaenia saginata Taenia solium Diphyllobothrium latum Taenia saginata= Beef Taenia solium= Pork Diphyllobothrium latum= Fish
With which of the tapeworms above can man be an accidental intermediate host? Taenia solium
Which tapeworm completes with the host for vitamin B 12? Fish tapeworm (Diphyllobothrium latum)
In which nematodes does the larval stage migrate through the lungs before becoming adults in the intestines? • Ascaris lumbricoides • Necator americanus • Ancylostoma duodenale • Strongyloides stercoralis
What roundworm (nematode) is diagnosed with the scotch tape test? Enterobiasis
Which intestinal nematode infection can have an auto-infection because the worm eggs hatch in the intestine? Strongyloides
What parasite causes amebic dysentery? Entamoeba histolytica
Trematode parasites have what organism as an intermediate host? Snail and water plant
Which hepatitis viruses are considered fecal-borne? Which are blood-borne? – Fecal-borne= Hepatitis A & E – Blood-borne= Hepatitis B, C, D
What are the signs/symptoms for all acute viral hepatitis infections? – Fever, fatigue – Nausea, loss of appetite – Jaundice – Dark urine, clay-colored stools – Increased liver enzymes, enlarged liver
What is unique about hepatitis D? Requires the presence of HBV for transmission. Steals the HBV glycoprotein in order to attach to liver cells
Which hepatitis infections can progress to a chronic infection? Hepatitis B, C
How is yellow fever transmitted? Mosquitoes
How is an infection with Schistosoma acquired? Acquire by direct skin penetration of cercariae (larvae)
How is an infection with Schistosoma diagnosed? Finding eggs in stool or urine sample
What are 2 liver flukes or trematodes? Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola hepatica
What are the intermediate hosts for the liver flukes? • snail and fish for Clonorchis sinensis • Freshwater plants for Fasciola hepatica
What are the signs and symptoms of acute bacterial meningitis? o Fever and chills o Malaise and myalgia o Headache and stiff neck o Vomiting and drowsiness o Petechia o Eye effects: such as pupil dilation, photophobia, unequal pupils, and diplopia
What free-living amoeba causes an acute, often-fatal meningoencephalitis? Naegleria fowleri
What 3 groups of viruses can cause viral meningitis or viral encephalitis? o Enteroviruses (examples: polio virus, ECHO virus, coxsackie virus A and B) o Arboviruses o Herpes simplex
The most likely infectious agents for bacterial meningitis vary with age. Give the infectious agents likely for:A. newborn to 3 months- B. 3 months to 6 years C. over 6 years to adults- A. E. coli, Group B streptococcus, Listeria monocytogenes B.Haemophilus influenza, Neisseria meningitides, Streptococcus pneumoniae C.Streptococcus pneumonia, Neisseria meningitidis
Describe the 3 clinical forms of polio. #1 Abortive polio o Most common form o Asymptomatic or fever, headache, malaise, sore throat, nausea, vomiting o Rapid recovery, illness is mild, usually not diagnosed
Describe the 3 clinical forms of polio. #2 • Aseptic meningitis or non-paralytic polio o Polio virus enters the CNS o Symptoms are those for abortive polio plus stiffness of neck and back o Recovery in about a week
Describe the 3 clinical forms of polio. #3 • Paralytic polio o Extension of aseptic meningitis o Virus destroys large motor neurons in anterior horn of spinal cord leading to paralysis o Most cases recover in 6 to 24 months
What is post polio syndrome? Can occur in any paralytic polio case even with full recovery o Occurs 30 to 40 years later o Symptoms: Unexpected fatigue Pain Weakness o Appears to be degeneration of motor neurons, the virus is not involved
Where in the host does Trypanosoma brucei cause significant damage? Goes from the blood to the CNS • Untreated usually leads to death
How does the rabies virus reach the CNS? Rabies virus moves to anterior horn of the spinal cord via peripheral nerve axons
When a laboratory does an India ink prep of spinal fluid, what are they looking for? yeast with capsules
Compare the mechanism of the tetanus toxin with that of the botulism toxin. Last chart to make..... You can do it!
What are the 3 different botulism infections? Classic botulism, infant botulism, wound botulism
What are the signs and symptoms of Creutzfeld-Jacob disease? Loss of motor control o Dementia o Paralysis wasting o Death
What are the 3 variations of Creutzfeld-Jacob disease? Classic, Variant, and Genetic
Created by: tshermer