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MCAT Org. Chem Ch. 3

QuestionAnswer
Quantum Numbers Describe the size, shape, orientation, and nnumber of atomic orbitals that an element possesses
Principal Quantum Number, n Describes the energy level (shell) in which an electron resides and indicates the distance from the nucleus to the electron. Its possible values range from 1 to inf.
Azimuthal Quantum Number, l Determines the subshell in which an electron resides. Possible values range from 0 to n-1. Subshell indicated with a letter: l = 0 means s, 1 = p, 2 = d, 3 = f
Magnetic Quantum Number, ml Determines the orbital in which an electron resides. Possible values range from -l to l. Different orbitals have different shapes: s-orbitals are spherical, while p-orbitals are dumbbell-shaped and located on the x-, y-, or z-axis
Spin Quantum Number, ms Describes the spin of an electron. Possible values = +1/2
Bonding Orbitals Created by head-to-head or tail-to-tail overlap of atomic orbitals of the same sign and are energetically favorable.
Antibonding Orbitals Created by head-to-head or tail-to-tail overlap of atomic orbitals that have opposite signs and are energetically unfavorable.
Single Bonds Sigma bonds which contain two electrons.
Double Bonds Contain one sigma bond and one pi bond. Pi bonds are created by sharing electrons between two unhybridized p-orbitals that align side-by-side.
Triple Bonds Contain one sigma bond and two pi bonds.
Note About Flexibility of Multiple Bonds vs. Single Bonds Multiple bonds are less flexible because rotation is not permitted in the prescence of a pi bond.
Strength of Multiple Bonds vs. Single Bonds Multiple bonds are shorter and stronger.
Strength of Individual Pi and Sigma Bonds Individual pi bonds are weaker than sigma bonds.
sp3-hybridized orbitals Orbitals that have 25% s character and 75% p character. They form tetrahedral geometry with 109.5 degree bond angles. Carbons with all single bonds are sp3-hybridized.
sp2-hybridized orbitals Orbitals have 33% s character and 67% p character. They form trigonal planar geometry with 120 degree bond angles. Carbons with one double bond are sp2-hybridized.
sp-hybridized orbitals Orbitals that have 50% s character and 50% p character. They form linear geometry with 180% bond angles. Carbons with a triple bond, or with two double bonds, are sp-hybridized.
Resonance Delocalization of electrons in molecules that have conjugated bonds
Conjugation Occurs when single and multiple bonds alternate, creating a system of unhybridized p-orbitals down the backbone of the molecule through with pi electrons can delocalize.
Note About Resonance And Stability Of A Molecule Resonance increases the stability of a molecule
Note About Electron Density And Stability Of Resonant Molecule Forms The more stable the resonance form, the more the molecule contributes electrons.
Note About Which Resonant Forms Are Favored Favored forms are ones that lack formal charge, form full octets on electronegative atoms, or stabilize charges through induction and aromaticity.
Created by: SamB91