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# MCAT Physics Ch 3

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Objects are in thermal equilibrium when they are at the same temperature, and experience no net exchange of heat energy.
Temperature Qualitative measure of how hot or cold an object is. This is related to the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up a substance.
Thermal Expansion Describes how a substance changes in length or volume as a function of the change in temperature.
Thermodynamic System Portion of the universe we are interested in observing
Surroundings Everything that is not a part of a system
Isolated Systems Systems that do not exchange matter or energy with the surroundings.
Closed Systems Systems that exchange energy but not matter with their surroundings.
Open Systems Systems that exchange both energy and matter with their surroundings.
State Functions Functions that are pathway independent and are not defined by a process. Ex: Pressure, density, temperature, volume, enthalpy, internal energy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy.
Process Functions Describe the pathway from one equilibrium state to another. Ex: Work and heat
First Law of Thermodynamics Statement of conservation of energy in which the total energy in the universe can never decrease or increase.
Note About Internal Energy In A Closed System Total internal energy is equal to the heat flow into a system minus work done by the system.
Heat Process of energy transfer between two objects at different temps that occurs until the two objects come into thermal equilibrium
Specific Heat Amount of energy necessary to raise 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree C or 1 unit Kelvin.
Specific heat of water 1 cal/g*K
Heat Of Transformation Heat during a phase change which causes a particles's potential energy and energy distribution (entropy) but not kinetic energy.
Isothermal Processes' Constant Variable Temp. is constant and change in internal energy is 0.
Adiabatic Processes' Constant Variable Not heat is exchanged.
Isobaric Processes' Constant Variable Pressure is held constant.
Isovolumetric (isochoric) Processes Volume is held constant and work done by or on the system is 0.
Second Law of Thermodynamics In a closed system, including the universe, energy will spontaneously and irreversibly go from being localized to being spread out (dispersed).
Entropy Measure of how much energy has spread out or how spread out energy has become.
Note About Increasing Microstates As the number of available microstates increases, the potential energy of a molecule is distributed over that larger number of microstates, increasing entropy.
Note About Natural Processes And Reversibility Every process is ultimately irreversible. Under highly controlled conditions, certain equilibrium processes such as phase changes can be treated as essentially reversible.
Farenheit Equation F = 9/5C + 32, K= C + 273
Thermal Expansion Equation Del. L = alpha*L*Del.T
Volume Expansion Equation Del. V = Beta*V*DelT
First Law of Thermodynamics Del. U = Q - W
Heated Gained Or Lost (With Temperature Change) q = mcDel.T
Heat Gained Or Lost (Phase Change) q = mL
Entropy and Heat Del. S = Qrev. / T
Second Law Of Thermodynamics Del.S Universe = Del. S System + Del. S Surroundings > 0
Created by: SamB91