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Chapter 1-3

Bi-Cameral Legislature A two house legislature
Block Grants A grant from a central government that a local authority can allocate to a wide range of service Ex: Welfare
Categorical Grant Are the main source of federal aid to state and local government, can be used only for specific purposes and for helping education or categories of state and local spending
Centralist People who favor national action over action at the state and local levels.
Checks and Balances counterbalancing influences by which an organization or system is regulated, typically those ensuring that political power is not concentrated in the hands of individuals or groups
Commerce Clause The Commerce Clause refers to Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution, which gives Congress the power “to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes.”
Concurrent powers` powers in nations with a federal system of government that are shared by both the State and the federal government. They may be exercised simultaneously within the same territory and in relation to the same body of citizens.
Decentralists but they share a common belief in restoring community self-reliance and bringing economic and social activities back to a more human scale.
Direct Democracy (also known as pure democracy) is a form of democracy in which people decide (e.g. vote on, form consensus on) policy initiatives directly.
Elastic Clause a statement in the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section 8) granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers.
Enumerated Powers a list of items found in Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution that set forth the authoritative capacity of Congress.
Federalism Where power is distributed between a central government and sub-divisional governments.
Dual Federalism a political arrangement in which power is divided between the federal and state governments in clearly defined terms, with state governments exercising those powers accorded to them without interference from the federal government.
Cooperative Federalism is a concept of federalism in which national, state, and local governments interact cooperatively and collectively to solve common problems, rather than making policies separately but more or less equally.
New Federalism a political philosophy of devolution, or the transfer of certain powers from the United States federal government back to the states.
Federalist Papers a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution
Formal Amendment one that goes through one of the processes outlined in Article V of the Constitution and adds to or changes the document's wording.
Implied powers powers exercised by Congress which are not explicitly given by the Constitution itself but necessary and proper to execute the powers which are.
Indirect Democracy is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Inherent powers are those powers that Congress and the president need in order to get the job done right. Although not specified in the Constitution, they are reasonable powers that are a logical part of the powers delegated to Congress and the president.
Informal Amendment are basically the result of day to day operations over time in our government. Many of the powers the constitution has set out to various areas, such as the President and Congress, leads to the creation of informal amendments as they use those powers.
Judicial Review review by the US Supreme Court of the constitutional validity of a legislative act.
Mandates an official order or commission to do something
Marbury v. Madison how judicial review was founded
McCulloch v. Maryland was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The state of Maryland had attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland.
Police powers the inherent power of a government to exercise reasonable control over persons and property within its jurisdiction in the interest of the general security, health, safety, morals, and welfare except where legally prohibited.
Popular Sovereignty the sovereignty of the people is the principle that the authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
Reserved Powers Powers held by the states through the 10th amendment. Any power not granted to the Us government is "reserved" for the states.
Separation of Powers an act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
Shay's Rebellion was an armed uprising that took place in Massachusetts (mostly in and around Springfield) during 1786 and 1787, which some historians believe "fundamentally altered the course of United States' [sic] history."
Supermajority a majority greater than simply 1/2 (3/5, 2/3
Unicameral Legislature a one house legislature
Created by: douglaswilbur