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History II

FINAL

QuestionAnswer
Dwight Eisenhower Amer. gen. and commander of Allied forces during WWII
George S. Patton Jr. Amer. gen. and tank commander during WWII
unconditional surrender giving up completely without any concessions
saturation bombing dropping massive amounts of bombs to inflict max. damage
Strategic bombing dropping bombs on key targets to destroy the enemy's capacity to make war
Tuskegee Airmen Afr. Amer. squadron that escorted bombers in the air war over Europe during WWII
Chester Nimitz commander of the U.S. Navy in the Pacific
Battle of Midway Amer. victory and turning point of the war in the Pacific
A. Philip Randolph Afr. Amer. labor leader
Executive Order 8802 WWII measure that assured fair hiring practices in jobs funded with gov. money
bracero program program in which laborers were brought from Mexico to work on Amer. farms
internment temporary imprisonment of members of a specific group
Korematsu v. U.S. Supreme Court case that upheld the government's wartime internment policy
442nd Regimental Combat Team Jap. Amer. combat team that became the most decorated military unit in Amer. history
rationing system that limits the amount of certain goods ppl can buy
Office of War Information encouraged support of the war effort
D-Day June 6, 1944 the day Allied forces invaded France
Battle of the Bulge Ger. counterattack that failed, resulting in a Allied victory
Harry S. Truman Pres. during the end of WWII
island hopping Amer. strategy of capturing selected islands in the Pacific in a steady path to Japan
kamikaze Jap, pilots who deliberately crashed their planes into Amer. ships
Albert Einstein world famous scientist who alerted Roosevelt of the need to develop atomic weapons
Manhattan Project code name for the program to develop an atomic bomb
J. Robert Oppenheimer key leader of the Manhattan Project
Holocaust name now used to describe the systematic murder by the Nazis of Jews and others
anti- semitism prejudice and discrimination against Jewish ppl.
Nuremberg Laws laws enacted by Hitler that denied Ger, citizenship to Jews
Kristallnacht Nov. 9, 1938 organized violence in which Jews were arrested and killed and synagogues burned
genocide willful annihilation of a racial,political, or cultural group
concentration camp camps used by the Nazis to imprison 'undesirable' members of society
death camp Nazi came designed for the extermination of prisoners
War Refugee Board U.S. gov. agency founded in 1944 to save Eastern European Jews
Yalta Conference big three agreed for Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania to have free elections
Clement Atlee became prime minister of Britain
Gen. Douglas MacArthur head of the Amer. military and supervised the writing of Japan's new constitution
Japan's new constitution abolished the armed forces except for purposes of defense and gave voting rights to women. Changed Japan politically
super powers U.S. and the Axis Powers (Soviet Union)
International Monetary Funds and the World Banks U.S. provided most of working capital for these new org. which worked to foster global economic and financial stability
Gen. Agreement on Tariffs and Trade designed to expand world trade by reducing tariffs
United Nations wanted to stay away from war and be in peace
Universal Declaration of Human Rights condemns slavery and torture, uphold freedom of speech, religion and standard living
Geneva Convention inter. agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war
Nuremberg Trials prosecuted Nazi for their crimes
satellite state indep. nation under the control of a more powerful nation
Cold War struggle in which the U.S. and Soviet Union became rivals but never fought directly in military conflict
iron curtain imaginary barrier separating Soviet-controlled countries and the free world
Truman Doctrine Pres. Truman;s policy to aid nations struggling against communism
containment policy of keeping communism contained within its existing borders
Marshall Plan U.S. aid program to help Western Europe rebuild after WWII
Berlin airlift operation in which the U.S. and Britain broke the Soviet blockade of West Berlin
North Atlantic Treaty Org. military alliance to counter Soviet expansion
Warsaw Pact rival military alliance formed by the Soviet Union and its satellite states
Jiang Jieshi nationalist leader in China
Mao Zadong communist leaser in China
38th Parallel dividing line between N. Korea and S. Korea
Douglas MacArthur WWII hero who commanded Amer. troops in S. Korea
limited war war fought to achieve only specific goals
Southeast Asia Treaty Org. (SEATO) defensive alliance aimed at preventing the spread of communism in Southeast Asia
Atomic Energy Commission produced hydrogen bomb and restored U.S. advantage over S. Union
arms race contest in which nations compete to build more powerful weapons
mutually assured destruction would prevent the use of nuclear device
Pres. Eisenhower accepted Truman's policy but wanted to actively contain communism
John Foster Dulles Sec. of State and believed the same visions as the Eisenhower
new policy focused on nuclear weapons or building planes, missiles, submarines and saved money
massive retaliation threatening to use massive forces in response to aggression
Nikita Khrushchev became the head of S. Union and wanted peace
Gamal Abdel Nasser Pres. of Egypt and rationalized Suez Canal
rationalized placing it under gov. control
Suez Crisis excuse to seize control of Suez Canal
Eisenhower Doctrine Doctrine made in response to S. Union and Middle East --use force to help Midd. Eastern nations from communism
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) aided a coup that installed a new gov. in Iran, helped place anti-communist leaders in power, and created long-term resentment against U.S.
National Defense Education Act intended to produce more scientists and teachers of science
National Aeronautics and Space Adm. (NASA) to coordinate the space-related efforts on Amer. scientists and military
Rosenberg Case focused on atomic secrets, heightened fears of nuclear disaster
Created by: Hellokitty139