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History 103 Exam 1

ch 16-20

Reconstruction Attempts to solve: Southern labor & land issues
Transition to free labor Without land of their own, ex slaves were still tied to the land of their employers, not really free. They were given wages, food, housing and medical care. Whipping was outlawed, but the army reserved the right to punish blacks that wouldn't work.
Black codes Laws that sought to keep blacks subordinate to whites by subjecting them to all kinds of discrimination.
13th Amendment 1865 - Abolished Slavery
14th Amendment 1868 - Equal Protection Clause
15th Amendment 1870 - Grants voting rights to men regardless of color
Ku Klux Klan White supremacy group;
Depression of 1873 1873-1879; Post War Inflation, too many RRs (too much spent on development with no return), property fires from Boston and Chicago,
Compromise of 1877 Election of Hayes bc of compromise: Military out of the South, Everyone can vote, Subsidies for South, No longer Repub. States, Ended Reconstruction. *Old Confederacy Continued
Depression of 1893 Wheat crop failed, making a run on gold from investors cashing in from the US treasury; Silver mines flooded the market w/silver; Bankruptcy in RRs continues.
Industrialism From Agricultural to Industrial, iron to US Steel, oil to electricity and power.
Comstock Lode Vein of Silver Ore in Nevada, started a silver rush.
Homesteading Homestead Act of 1862-1870; 1 File app. 2 Improve the land. 3 File deed for title. 4. Live on the land for 5 yrs.
Indian removal Settlers trespassed and met hostility; 30 years of Indian Was culminated the final removal;
Dawes Allotment Act 1887 Indian Parcel allotment; reduced Indian land from 138 sq.miles to 48 sq. miles.
Ghost Dance A new indian religion, combining elements of Christianity and traditional Indian religion in 1889. Paiute shaman had a vision of using the dance and destroying the whites in an apocalypse, with indians' slained to come back to life with the buffalo.
The Battle of Little Big Horn Custer took his army of 200 against a gathering of 8K Sioux Indians in 1876.
Wounded Knee Dec. 1890; Indian Massacre. After Sitting Bull was killed at Standing rock, his people flead and joined a group of Sioux apprehended by Custer's old regiment. As Indians laid down arms, a deaf man fought over his gun and it went off. Soldiers killed all.
Definition of "Gilded Age" Shiny, but false. Not enough money for the middle class.
Vertical integration All aspects of the business were owned; from ore to steel production.
Horizontal integration Controlling one area of production for an industry - affecting many companies and developing an monopoly.
Laissez-Faire French: "Leave it alone" - Businesses argued that government shouldn't meddle in economic affairs, except to protect private property.
Gospel of Wealth Carnegie's essay that softened the harshness of social darwinism from J.P. Morgan. Carnegie claimed he acted as a mere trustee to the poor and preached philanthropy.
Economies of scale Small business to large industries; buggies to cars/trains; iron to US Steel, small farm plots to large areas managed by new machinery.
Social Gospel A movement that applied Christian Ethics to social problems; Reforming society, not just individuals
Radical Republicans Strongly opposed slavery during the war and after the war distrusted ex-Confederates, demanding harsh policies for the former rebels, and emphasizing civil rights and voting rights for freedmen
Tariffs Tax on imported goods to restrict trade and protect America from foreign competition.
Garfield's Assassination and civil service reform Garfield shop by Charles J Guiteau, because he didn't get a job. Press universally condemned Rep. fractionalism and attacked spoils system. Public demanded reform.
Pendleton Civil Service Act Exam rather than patronage for jobs; beginning of professionalism in Government bureaucracy.
Haymarket The rise & fall of Unskilled labor union; 8hr day supporters began a nationwide strike on May 1st 1886; 45K workers peacefully in Chicago; 2 days later, workers attacked scabs, police opened fire, killing 6; May 4th bomb; 8 innocent anarchists convicted
Populist Party Many groups: farmers, graingers, labor, socialist, free silver party. The disenfranchised pushing back against the industrialists.
Populist Movement Ran on the Omaha Platform: Nationalization of transport. and communication, graduation income tax, currency based on gold & silver, James B. Weaver representing in 1892 Election
Farmer's Revolt 1890s, Great demand of cotton & wheat during Civil War>Prices went down due to flooded market, rising RR rates, Insufficient currency & credit system>crop liens not worth enough
Anarchism Self-Governing. The lack of Hierarchy; The lack of acknowledgment to authority.
American Federation of Labor (AFL) Union for Skilled Labor; Racist; Higher pay & better working conditions; Led by Samuel Gompers
Knights of Labor Union for Unskilled Labor; Public ownership of RR; Embraced diversity, equal pay for women and abolishment of child labor; Grew after 1877 RR Strike; collapsed after Haymarket Square
Molly Maguires Ireland: Primarily a Union for Coal Miners; violent; closed out by industrialists
Industrial workers Unskilled workers: large factories, mills and mines.
Skilled workers Iron and steel workers.
Farmer's Alliance An alliance of farmers to establish their own stores, elevators, insurance companies, banks, storage and rail, in response to the rising costs of freight rates and gold standard banking.
Omaha Platform To nationalize transportation and communication, a graduated income tax, currency based on gold and silver, some movement within racial grps, creating barriers in the south, not particularly concerned with laborers/industrialists - mostly farmers.
1893 Depression The Panic of 1893, began with bankruptcy of Philad. and Reading RR - Not enough profit for amount to build and loaned. Run on banks. large # moved to the country for work.
Coxey's Army A march of unemployed men from OH to washington, led by David Coxey, who proposed a public works program designed to put men to work.
Homestead Lockout June 25th 1892, steel workers strike for fair working conditions; Pinkerton's vs Strikers; Goldman and Berkman used the strike as an anarchist movement, but didn't want same as strikers. Strikers lost: Govrnt step in and bad anarchist publicity
Cripple Creek Miner's Strike 1894: Miners demanded an 8hr day during the depression; some mine owners settled, others held out. Working miners and businesses supported strikers to holdout. Govn Waite had ties with miners and refused govrnmt intervene. Miners won.
Pullman Strike Pullman railcar plant workers strike due to high rents and decreasing rents; Pullman boycot included American Railway Union, switchman refused to handle any train carrying pullman cars.
Role of state in labor strikes Usually took the side of businesses to protect scabs and pinkertons, keep the peace and keep businesses running.
Gold standard A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold.
Free silver Driving down the cost of precious metal, increasing the money supply with silver dollars and causing inflation.
Monroe Doctrine Establishing the Western Hemisphere as an American "sphere of influence," warning European powers to stay away or risk war.
San Juan Hill The battle during the Spanish-American war fought by the Rough Riders that made Roosevelt a war hero.
Treaty of Paris An agreement made in 1898 that resulted in the Spanish Empire's surrendering control of Cuba and ceding Puerto Rico, parts of the Spanish West Indies, the island of Guam, and the Philippines to the United States.
Rough Riders The 1st US volunteer cavalry during the Spanish-American war, pushing for American involvement for cuban independence from Spain. Initially led by Wood, who became commander of 2nd, leaving Roosevelt to command.
Sufferage The legal right to vote
Women's Christian Temperance Union The first mass organization of women devote to social reform; Included missionary work and suffrage reform.
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 First US Strike: cut wages by 10%, paid 10% to stock holders; Strike spread across US; violence and vandalism scared gov. and industr.; Gov. troops were called in and took side with businesses.
Labor radicalism "Old" immigrants (Germany) hostile to "New" immigrants (C./Eastern Europe); Chinese Disenfranchised - immigration barred to save jobs.
Guam, Philippines, Puerto Rico In April 1897, the Spanish -American War began in these countries for their freedom from Spain.
Imperialism Called for Free Silver; "Do not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold." Populist presidential candidate in 1896.
Muckraking Refers to reform-minded journalists investigating and reporting social ills, political and corporate corruption.
Andrew Johnson Claimed Presidency after the assassination of Lincoln. Did everything he could to continue Confederacy in the South. Impeached and lay passive for the last few months of presidency.
Rutherford B. Hayes Elected President in 1877 with Compromise of 1877
Jay Gould Industrialist of the Railroad
John D. Rockefeller Industrialist of Oil
Andrew Carnegie Industrialist of Steel, making the first Bessemer Steel plant in the US
J.P. Morgan Industrialist of Banking
George Armstrong Custer Little Big Horn
Jacob Riis Danish Journalist, "How the other Half Live." Photography and story of how the lower class lived and worked.
Washington Roebling Chief Engineer of the Brooklyn Bridge
Samuel Gompers President of the AFL; cigar maker; Too conservative to strike, but threatened it;
Terrence Poderly Leader of the Knights of Labor
William Jennings Bryan The 1896 Populist presidential candidate - Called for Free Silver. "Do not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."
Emma Goldman Russian Immigrant - Anarchist during Homestead movement, but wanted different outcomes than the workers. Advocated for violence when necessary. "For each according to his ability, to each according to his need."
Elizabeth Cady Stanton Started Womens Activism: Suffrage Movement in 1848
Susan B. Anthony Leader of the National American Women Suffrage Association of 1869
Francis Willard Leader of the women's Christian temperance union. "Home protection" increase rights in women, increase family life, increase men's political performance.
Jane Addams Sought solutions to the social problems created by industrialism. Wanted to help immigrant workers and help educated women find meaningful work. Founded Hull House.
Boss Tweed Kept the democratic party together and ran NYC through use of bribery and graft.
Theodore Roosevelt Took over presidency after McKinley was shot in 1901.
Eugene Debs Leader of the American Railway Union, to unite all rail workers, at all levels. Active in the Pullman Strike.
Frederick Jackson Turner Delivered his essay, "The Significance of the Frontier in American History," during the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893.
Presidential election Dates and candidates 1869 - Grant vs Seymour; 1877 - Hayes vs Tilden; 1881 - Garfield vs Hancock; 1881 - Arthur; 1885 Cleveland vs Blain; 1888 - Harrison vs Cleveland; 1893 - Cleveland vs ; 1897 McKinley vs ; 1901 Roosevelt; 1905 - Roosevelt vs ; 1909 - Taft vs ; 1913 WW
Diversity and violence of the American West The West was more diverse than big cities in the East. Produced a complex blend of racism & prejudice. African Am, Hispanics & Mormons faced open hostility in many areas. 1870 Chinese Disenfranchised; 1882 barred chinese immigration to save jobs.
Why people moved west? "Manifest Destiny" - The "obvious" right to expand the nation from ocean to ocean; Opportunity and land.
The corporation of the gilded age Ma&Pop to Corporations; Monopoly: buying out competition by dropping $, bankrupting, & rising costs; Trust: Similar business turn over assets to a board to control $ & competition; Consolidation: Creating a huge business controlled by one company
Supreme Court and Laissez-Faire 1880-90s: 14th Amendment defines corp. as people (rights, free speech, anti-trust leg. protect. - cannot sue for monopoly); Says 14th Amend doesn't provide gov. w/power to discriminate.
Characteristics of elections in the late 1800s Elections were literally a party. Local politics were most important; politicians did things for votes.
What triggered migration during the late 19th century? The panic of 1893, many people moved from the city to the country for work.
What was the impact of jacob riis' photos? Middle Class readers sensibilities were impacted to trigger change towards the progressive era: Maybe the extremes of the gilded age have gone too far?
Why did the US try to secure foreign markets in the 1890s? As markets weakened at home during the depression of 1890s, American businesses looked abroad for profits.
Date: End of the Civil War 1861-1865
Date: Abraham Lincoln's assassination April 14th 1865
Date: Reconstruction 1863 - 1877
Date: Gilded Age 1870-1895
Date: Progressiveism 1890-1920
Date: Transcontinental Railroad Pacific Railroad Act 1862 (land grants for rail and telegraph), 1863-1869: Omaha to SanFran; 1882 S. Pacific - SantaFe to LA; NP 1883: Chicago to Seattle; 1893: Great Northern - St. Paul to Seattle
Greenbacks an alliance of urban wage laborers and farmers in favor of issuing paper currency not tied to the gold reserve, but to land labor and capital.
Election of 1868 Grant vs Seymour
Election of 1876 Tilden vs Hayes
Election of 1880 ; Garfield vs Hancock; Garfield assassinated (started civil service reform), then Arthur
Election of 1884 Cleveland vs Blain; Cleveland won. (Cleveland - uncorrupt)
Election of 1888 - Harrison vs Cleveland; Harrison won over tariffs (cleveland wanted to lower them and lost business voters)
Election of 1892 Cleveland vs Harrison;
Election of 1896 McKinley vs William Bryan & Sewall;
Election of 1900 McKinley vs William Bryan; McKinley assassinated > Roosevelt
Election of 1904 Roosevelt vs Parker;
Election of 1872 Grant vs Greeley
Election of 1909 Taft vs William Bryan
Created by: 100000200835833