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WVSOM -- Histology

WVSOM -- Female reprouction

QuestionAnswer
What are primary follicles? glycoprotein layer (zona pellucid) surrounds the oocyte. ! layer of cuboidal follicular cells surrounding the oocyte.
What changes occur in the primary follicles? develop by proliferation of follicular cells. Have several layers of follicular cells called granulosa cells
What are granulosa cells? Follicular cells that have several layers
What is the major function of the ovary? steroidogenesis (estrogen & progesterone production) & gametogenesis (oocytes & ova production)
What is the theca folliculi? Stromal cells that form a sheath around these granulosa cells
What is the corona radiate? granulosa cells that surround the oocyte
What does the theca interna do? they are theca folliculi that produce estrogen.
What are secondary or antral follicles? established when fluid accumulates in intercellular spaces between granulose cells and form a single large cavity (antrum)
What is a primodial follicle? primary oocyte covered by 1 layer of squamous follicular cells
What is the tunica albuginea? the capsule that surrounds the ovary. Made up of dense irregular connective tissue
What is a graafian follicle? The one follicle among secondary follicles that will ovulate;
What are the characteristics of the graafian follicle? oocyte located on a small mound of granulosa cells (cumulus oophorus), which projects into the antrum.
What is the corpus luteum? A temporary endocrine gland made of granulosa cells cells (granulosa luteum = progesterone) & modified theca interna cells (theca luteum = estrogen).
How long does the corpus luteum last? aroudn 12 days
What does the corpus luteum do? halts ovulation after fertilization occurs.
What is the corpis albicans? Small scar formed from corpus luteum remnants after function ceases & it degenerates. Fibrocytes
What is the oviduct? fallopian tubes
What are the 2 cell types of the oviduct? ciliated and peg cells
What are peg cells? nutrient-rich secretion to nourish oocyte
What do ciliated cells of the oviduct do? move the embryo to the uterus
What is uterus divided into? fundus and cervix
What does the uterine wall consist of? endometrium, myometrium and adventitia(serosa)
What is the functional layer of the uterus? thick superficial layer - sloughed and reestablished monthly due to hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle.
What is the basal layer of the uterus? deeper endometrial layer preserved during menstruation - basal cells provide a source for endometrial growth after the functional layer is sloughed.
What are coiled arteries? extend into functional layer & undergo changes during different stages of the menstrual cycle.
What are straight arteries of the uterus? do not undergo cyclic changes - terminate in the basal layer.
What are the 3 stages of the proliferative phase? 1. Entire functional layer renewed. 2) epithelial lining renewed by mitotic activity of cells in uterine glands of the basal layer. 3) coiled arteries extend ~2/3 of the way into the endometrium
What are the phases of the menstrual cycle? proliferative phase, secretory (luteal) phase and menstruating phase
What are the 3 parts to the secretory phase? 1) endometrial thickening due to secretion by the endometrial glands. 2) glands become coiled and lumens contain a secretory glycoprotein material. 3) increased coiling of coiled arteries and extend into superficial parts of functional layer
What are the 4 parts to the menstrual phase? hemorrhagic discharge from the endometrium by 1) spaasmos of contraction and relaxation. 2) prolonged arterial vasoconstriction causes ischemia. 3) sudden and intermittent vasodilation of the coiled arteries ruptures walls and 4) basal layer not sloughed
What are the characteristics of the cervix? Simple columnar epithelium except for the inferior portion (continuous with vaginal lining) -covered by stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium.
Where do most cervical cancers occur? at the transition of simple columnar epithelium and stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium
What are nabothian cycts? glands that get blocked in the cervix
What is a pap stain? A Mutlichromatic stain used to differentiate cells in smear preparations of various bodily secretions (brushings, washings, CSF, synovial fluid, etc).
What is a normal pap smear? cell nuclei are crisp blue to black. Cells with high content of keratin are yellow. Superficial cells are orange to pink, and intermediate and parabasal cells are turquoise green to blue.
What are the histological characteristics of the vagina? Mucosa has stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium with glycogen ; Circumscribed by skeletal muscle at external orifice; Lacks glands throughout its length -lubricated by cervical secretions.
Created by: tjamrose