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JAH--The South and W

JAHKMLHS C15 The South and West Transformed

Bureau of Indian Affairs This agency, part of the Department of the Interior, was in charge of all reservations.
A Century of Dishonor This book was a chronicled record of the government’s ruthlessness and deceit toward the Native Americans and inspired a movement to assimilate Indians for their own good.
Sitting Bull When the United States government offered to buy the Black Hills from the Sioux after gold was discovered, this leader, together with Crazy Horse, left the reservation and continued fighting white men.
Chief Joseph This man led his tribe in a 75 day running battle with the U. S. army when the U. S. government ordered the removal of the Nez Perce for Wallowa Valley in Oregon
George Armstrong Custer This cavalry colonel became the second commander to lead his men into a perfectly designed and executed trap in which he and all his men were killed.
Ghost Dance This ritual would make the white men disappear and bring back to life the buffalo herds and Indians who had been killed in the wars.
Dawes Act This law was designed to eradicate Native American culture and to force the Indians to behave like “good white settlers.”
Sand Creek Massacre This occurred in Colorado when Colonel J.M. Chivington’s militia attacked and killed about four hundred Native Americans in cold blood—Native Americans who had thought they had been promised immunity and Indians who were peaceful and harmless
Americanization This policy suggested that Native Americans would be “better off” if they abandoned their culture and adopted the White man’s culture.
Wounded Knee Massacre This was the last major clash between United States troops and Native Americans and occurred when the army was sent to end the sacred “Ghost Dance.”
Helen Hunt Jackson This writer showed how treaty after treaty with Native Americans was broken.
Carlisle Indian School This institution in Pennsylvania was founded to show Native American children how to behave like White man, completely erasing their culture.
Wovoka According to this Paiute, by performing a ritual dance, the Native Americans, who were God’s chosen people, could prevail upon the Great Spirit to make the white men disappear.
A Century of Dishonor This best seller detailed how time and again “Christian” whites had cheated “savage” Native Americans of their land, herded them onto reservations on next to worthless lands and then chipped away at those.
Geronimo This Apache, who continued to fight the white men even after his tribe had made peace with the United States, was a resourceful leader. He rarely fought soldiers; his band lived by raiding Mexican and American farms.
Fetterman Massacre This event occurred along the Bozeman Trail when a cavalry captain disobeyed orders and led his 80 men into a trap set by the Sioux chief Red Cloud.
Chisholm Trail This was one of the routes on which cattle were herded to market in Kansas.
placer mining This method of finding valuable minerals is used when the minerals are found in loose sand or gravel.
Comstock Lode This mineral deposit in Nevada was discovered in 1859, and a fantastic amount of gold and silver worth more than $340 million was mined.
hard-rock mining This method for extracting ore requires the cutting of deep shafts into the solid rock.
hydraulic mining This method to extract ore requires water under high pressure to blast away dirt in order to expose the minerals underneath.
Long Drive This name referred to herding cattle across desolate land to railroad terminals.
Joseph Glidden This man came up with an invention, barbed wire, that allowed ranchers to enclose some of their pastureland
“Buffalo Bill” Cody This man, a buffalo hunter and much praised scout for the army, sympathized with the Indians and recruited Sioux warriors, including Sitting Bull, to travel with his show.
Ned Buntline This man whose actual name was E. Z. C. Judson churned out more than 400 romantic, blood-and-guts chivalric “novels” about western heroes.
dime novels These “pulps,” so-called for the cheap paper on which they were printed, detailed the lives of intrepid lawmen, brave Indian fighters, and tough heroic women like “Calamity Jane” and “Belle Starr.”
Billy the Kid This Brooklyn-born hired gun in New Mexico was romanticized as a tragic hero who had been forced into a life of crime by an uncaring society.
James Butler “Wild Bill” Hickock This man, a gambler who killed perhaps six people before he was shot down in Deadwood Gulch, South Dakota in 1876, was credited with dozens of killings, all in the cause of making the West safe for women and children.
Homestead Act This legislation, signed by President Lincoln in 1862, provided 160 acres of land to settlers for a small fee it they met certain conditions.
bonanza farm This operation was controlled by a large business, managed by professionals, and raised massive quantities of a single cash crop.
Exodusters This term referred to the African Americans who migrated in large groups to the “promised land” of the West.
Morrill Act This gave millions of acres of western lands to state governments who could sell the land to raise money for the creation of land grant colleges specializing in agriculture and mechanical arts.
Frederick Jackson Turner This man proposed, "The existence of an area of free land, its continuous recession, and the advance of American settlement westward explain American development."
sod house This was a structure with the walls and roof made from strips of grass with the thick roots and earth attached.
James Oliver On June 30, 1857, this man obtained his first patent from the U.S. government, entitled “Improvement in Chilling Plow Shares.” It covered a new way to process a plow point, or share, to an extremely hard surface.
Pacific Railway Act This legislation gave large land grants to the companies who were laying the first set of rails across the west.
Benjamin “Pap” Singleton This black carpenter from Nashville traveled throughout the South urging African Americans to migrate en masse to Kansas and found “colonies” for their race.
dugout This structure was carved out of the side of an embankment and cost about $3 to build. It was insulated from winter chill and summer heat.
safety valve theory This concept stated that the frontier was like a pressure release for people who, when it became too crowded in their area, could simply pack up and leave, moving West.
dry farming This innovation allowed cultivation of arid land by using drought-resistant crops and various techniques to minimize evaporation.
John Deere This man introduced the first steel plow in 1837; it was much stronger than iron designs that it was able to slice through the thick sod of the Plains.
Created by: jim.haferman
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