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Gilded Age

TermDefinition
Garfield The president who wanted to reform politics and who was assassinated over the issue
WEB DuBois African American who called for equal rights for African Americans
Ellis Island The place where European immigrants arrived in the US
Angel Island The place where most Asian immigrants arrived in the US
pool secret arrangement between company leaders to keep prices low
trust a company that doesn’t make a product, but which owns the stock of multiple companies who makes products
corporation a business made up of many people but treated as one person by law; it can sell stock to stockholders.
Captains of Industry Entrepreneurs or business leaders, risk takers, ingenious business men who helped grow the American economy
Great Railroad Strike of 1877 first nationwide labor protest; President Hayes sent troops in after railroad tracks were ripped up.
Pendleton Civil Service Act The reform act which ended the spoils system and began the use of the merit system in choosing government employees
Sherman Anti-Trust Act Act of the government passed in 1890 with the goal of breaking up monopolies & opening up competition in the market.
Garfield The president who wanted to reform politics and who was assassinated over the issue instead was
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire The disaster which led to the creation of new building and fire codes as well as workman’s compensation laws
Eugene Debs Socialist leader, labor union organizer of the Haymarket Riot outside of Chicago.
Opened Hull House in Chicago The most famous of the settlement houses of the gilded age.
Tammany Hall NYC’s most infamous political machine.
Ida Wells Barnett African American who spoke out against lynching
WEB DuBois African American who called for equal rights for African Americans
Children’s Bureau Government agency formed to enforce child labor laws
Thomas Nast Famous cartoonist, noted for bringing down Boss Tweed
Robber Barons Name Gilded Age entrepreneurs were often called because of the way they used unfair business practices and forced others out of business.
Boss Tweed Corrupt leader of Tammany Hall
Laissez-Faire Type of economy in which the government leaves industry alone in order to grow businesses
Monopoly When a business has almost total control of the marketplace and does not allow competition
vertical integration when a company purchases companies at all levels of production when making a product. Like when Swift purchased the cattle, refrigerated railroad cars, all the way to the meat packing plant
Steel The invention was most influential in building the modern, vertical, city
Knights of Labor The first nationwide industrial union
Big Business Group who would have used injunctions, scabs and lockouts when handling a labor disputes
Streetcar The streets clogged with people, horse drawn trolleys and animals in the 19th century that it could sometimes take an hour to walk a few yards. Pedestrians were killed in the street due to all the traffic. This invention was created to solve this problem
Old Immigrants They came from Western European countries like Ireland
New Immigrants They came from Eastern European countries like Italy, Russia & Poland
Political Machine A strong political party which offered jobs & places to live to immigrants in exchange for their vote
Chinese Exclusion Act An effect of nativism (or hatred of immigrants) that developed in the late 1800s
secret ballot Solution to stop corruption of the political machines at the city and state level
Public library the “poor man’s university” during the gilded age
Industrialization Shift from an agriculture economy to manufacturing on a large scale; from people to machine
Urbanization Huge population boom in the cities
Social Darwinism Idea that used Darwin’s theory of evolution to justify the extreme wealth of the entrepreneurs- belief in “survival of the fittest.”
Rags to riches Belief that no matter your beginnings you can make a better life & rise up in society if you work hard
Horatio Alger author of “rags to riches” stories
Gospel of Wealth Andrew Carnegie’s theory that a person should be allowed to make as much as possible but pass much of it on to worthy causes
Credit Moblier Name of the 1872 railroad scandal in which it was found that some Union Pacific stockholders were swindling the government to make a profit
George Eastman Inventor of the Camera
Alexander Graham Bell Inventor of the Telephone
George Pullman Inventor of the Sleeping Car
Thaddeus Lowe Inventor of the Ice Machine
Wright Brothers First in Flight
Elisa Otis Inventor of the Elevator
Thomas Alva Edison Inventor of the electric light bulb
James B. Duke The tobacco industry entrepreneur
JP Morgan Banker who incorporated US Steel
John D. Rockefeller The oil industry entrepreneur
Cornelius Vanderbilt Railroad industry entrepreneur
Gustavus Swift meatpacking industry entrepreneur
Andrew Carnegie steel industry entrepreneur
AT&T what the companies formed by Alexander Graham Bell are today called
General Electric what the companies formed by Thomas Edison are today called
YMCA and Salvation Army 2 Christian groups that formed in the US in the late 1800s to help the poor
Violent Strikes why many Americans disliked labor unions during the Gilded Age business, when the labor unions & business clashed, it was the side the government always took.
George Eastman Inventor of the Camera
Alexander Graham Bell Inventor of the Telephone
George Pullman Inventor of the Sleeping Car
Thaddeus Lowe Inventor of the Ice Machine (early refrigerator)
Elisa Otis Inventor of the Elevator
Thomas Alva Edison Inventor of the electric light bulb
James B. Duke The tobacco industry entrepreneur
JP Morgan Banker who incorporated US Steel
John D. Rockefeller The oil industry entrepreneur
Cornelius Vanderbilt The Railroad industry entrepreneur
Gustavus Swift The meatpacking industry entrepreneur
Carnegie Copied the Bessemer process to make cheap steel & begin the US steel industry
Pittsburgh the city were Carnegie established his steel plant
Wages the goal of the members of labor unions in the Gilded Age was higher _______
injunction court order forcing strikers back to work
scab a non-union worker brought in when workers were on strike
business when labor unions and business clashed, the side the government always supported.
Created by: sarahosmond