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Chapter 12&13

What issues were prevalent during the 20s that are still debated today? Political isolationism and immigration policy are still debated today.
Define nativism. Nativism is prejudice against foreign-born people.
What is isolationism and why do you think Americans were so concerned with this issue? Isolationism is a policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs. Americans were concerned because they thought those issues weren't their problem, and getting involved would have cost lots of money and would get them into too many conflicts.
Explain how Communist hoped to equalize wealth and power. They would end private property, substitute government ownership of factories, railroads, and other businesses.
What was the "Red Scare" and why were Capitalists concerned with goals of the Communists? The "Red Scare" was a panic in the US that began in 1919, after revolutionaries in Russia overthrew the czarist regime. Lenin created the "reds" who wanted to abolish capitalism everywhere, so capitalists were concerned.
What were the Palmer raids and why were they considered an attack on civil liberties? The Palmer raids in August of 1919, Palmer appointed Hoover as an assistant and hunted down suspected Communists, Socialists, and Anarchists. Attack on civil liberties because invaded private homes/offices, jailed suspects without legal counsel.
Explain why the case of Sacco and Vanzetti is worthy of being in our history book. It was important because they were arrested and charged with the robbery and murder of a factory paymaster and his guard, but the evidence was circumstantial and provided alibis. Jury found them guilty. People said it was because they were immigrants.
What were the main goals of the Ku Klux Klan? To keep blacks "in their place" destroying saloons, opposing unions, and driving Roman Catholics, Jews, and foreign-born people out of the country.
What were the problems that surfaced after World War One that the Harding administration faced? They faced problems in relation to arms control, war debt, and the reconstruction of war-torn countries.
What was the major result of the Washington Naval Conference that eventually became the Kellogg-Brand Pact? For the first time in history, powerful nations agreed to disarm, and in 1928, 15 countries signed the Kellogg-Brand Pact that renounced war as a national policy.
What were the reasons behind the Europeans not being able to pay off their debts? The Fordney-McCumber Tariff that raised taxes on US imports made it impossible for them to repay the US (the US were protected from the tariff).
The Harding administration has come to be recognized as one of that was filled with political scandals. Describe the circumstances behind the administration's most notorious scandal the Teapot Dome scandal. Albert B. Fall got oil-rich lands set aside for the Navy to be given to the Interior Department. He then hired 2 oil companies to lease it to. He claimed it was for the government, but he received $400,000 in "loans, bonds and cash".
What evidence indicated that Calvin Coolidge favored a laissez-faire approach to economics? He wanted to keep taxes down and business profits up, and give businesses more available credit in order to expand.
Describe the impact of the automobile? It liberated the isolated rural family and gave them a way to travel. People became more independent, and could live farther from work. This started urban communities, and cities based on cars as an economic base.
Explain the phrase urban sprawl. The urban sprawl was when the housing developments in and around cities spread and expanded.
What effect did the growing use of electricity have on American women? Made the lives of housewives easier, freed them for other community or leisure activities, and led to more work outside of the home.
List and explain two examples of superficial prosperity in the 20s. As businesses expanded, the income gap between workers and managers did as well. The iron and railroad industries weren't prosperous, and farms suffered losses. People started to but on credit (installment plan) and it got out of hand with many worse off.
What were Americans experiencing in the 1920s? They were experiencing cultural conflicts as customs and values changed in the 1920s.
In the 1920s what was happening to AMerica's urban population? America's urban population was accelerating with 2 million people leaving farms and towns each year.
Small towns were bound by traditional morals and close ties of family and friends, how was urban life different? City people argued about current scientific and social ideas. They judged one another by accomplishment, and tolerated drinking, gambling, and casual dating.
What did the 18th Amendment launch? It launched Prohibition which legally prohibited the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages.
List two organizations that supported Prohibition? The Anti-Saloon League and the Women's Christian Temperance Union supported Prohibition.
What did the Volstead Act establish and explain why it was so difficult to enforce Prohibition? The Volstead Act established a Prohibition Bureau in the Treasury Department in 1919, it was not enforced because there were only 1500 poorly paid federal agents and local police which were not enough to patrol 18,700 miles of coastline.
What were speakeasies? Speakeasies were underground or hidden saloons and nightclubs.
What was a bootlegger? A bootlegger was someone who smuggled alcohol from Canada, Cuba, and the West Indies.
In what ways did Prohibition actually hurt society? Prohibition only generated disrespect for the law, contributed to organized crime, and only 19% of Americans supported it.
What was fundamentalism? Fundamentalism was a Protestant movement that was grounded in a liberal, or non symbolic interpretation of the Bible. They were skeptical of some scientific discoveries and theories.
How did fundamentalism conflict with Charles Darwin? They rejected the theory of evolution, they believed in God's creation of humans.
What was the Scopes Trial about? What organization defended John T. Scopes? It was about when Tennessee passed the nation's first law that made it a crime to teach evolution. John T. Scopes read a passage from Civil Biology and was arrested. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) defended Scopes.
What was a flapper? Why would the term emancipated apply to women who were considered flappers? A flapper was an emancipated young woman who embraced the new fashions and urban attitudes of the time. They were emancipated or freed from the social chains that held them down. They had more opportunities and were free with the right to vote.
What was the double standard of the 1920s? It was a set of principles granting greater sexual freedom to men than to women, yet women were required to observe stricter standards or behavior than men did.
How did the growth of business and industry affect women? Many female college graduates took jobs as teachers, nurses, and librarians. They took "women's professions".
What was a new problem for schools during the 1920s that are still present today? School costs doubled (1913-1920), then doubled again by 1926. The cost of American education in the mid-1920s amounted to $2.7 billion a year.
The radio came of age in the 20s, what effect would its development have on society? The wider world had opened up to Americans and they could now hear the voice of their president or listen to the World Series live.
Who was Charles Lindbergh? He was a small-town pilot who made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic that took 33 hours and 29 minutes.
What did the Harlem Renaissance provide that would matter today? It provided a foundation of African-American intellectualism to modern African-American writers, artists, and musicians.
What does NAACP stand for and what is the purpose of this organization? It stands for National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. The NAACP urged African Americans to protest racial violence.
Who was Marcus Garvey? Marcus Garvey was an immigrant from Jamaica. He advocated for a separate society built for the African Americans.
Why was Harlem so special in the 1920s? It was special because it was the world's largest black urban community. "It was the black capital of black America" (James Weldon).
Who was Langston Hughes? He was a poet who was born in Missouri. He was the best known poet of the Harlem Renaissance. His poems described the difficult lives of working class African Americans.
Who was Paul Robeson and why was he blacklisted? He was a major dramatic actor. He was blacklisted because of his race and because he supported the Soviet Union and the Communist Party.
Who was Louis Armstrong? Louis Armstrong was a trumpet player who was in Joe 'King" Oliver's Creole Jazz Band. He made personal expression a key part of jazz, and became one of the most important and influential musicians in the history of jazz.
Who was Bessie Smith? Bessie Smith was a female blues singer who in 1927 became the highest-paid black artist in the world. She recorded on black-oriented labels and was perhaps the most outstanding vocalist of the decade.
Created by: Matti